Sites of Cultural Identity

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Cultural Identity of African-Americans: We live in  a multi-cultural, multi-ethnic, and multi-racial society.  And African American culture is one of the most important part of American history, from the beginning of the slave trade through the Civil Rights movement to the present.  So our group is here to explore the history and culture, as well as social, political and economic issues that have shaped African Americans.  many African Americans have played a vital role in the history and culture of our country since it's founding.  African Americans' food, music, community and sense of place are all an attempt to maintain their own culture, and it is the way they retain their sense of identity and pass it on to the next generation.

Wayne C. Robinson.The African and American travel guide. Canada, Hunter Publishing, 1998. (QJY)

This book provides information about the history, progress and contributions of African-Americans and African-Canadians, and provides hundreds of listings so that travelers may support the many African-American owned or operated historical sites, attractions, restaurants, businesses. 
Dalton Conley. Being Black, living in the red: race, wealth, and social policy in America.  Univ California Press,1999. (QJY)
From Booklist , June 1, 1999 Many of the socioeconomic differences between blacks and whites in the U.S. have been attributed to differences in income. Several years ago, though, sociologists Melvin Oliver and Thomas Shapiro suggested in their book Black Wealth/White Wealth that net financial assets can be used as a better indicator of the opportunities available to blacks and whites. Conley, an assistant professor of sociology and African American studies at Yale, goes way beyond this basic premise to argue that many of the inequities that exist between the two races are the result of gaping differences in accumulated family wealth. Moreover, he shows that when wealth is held constant, many differences diminish. Conley analyzes the reasons blacks own so much less property than whites. Without denying the impact of other factors, he suggests that his findings have major implications for social policies ranging from affirmative action to the privatization of social security. This book is based on Conley's dissertation, which was named best graduate thesis for 1996 by the American Sociological Association. David Rouse. 
Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture, IV, edited by Thomas Carter and Bernard L. Herman. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1991. (EM)
Sies offers a method with which to examine the ideas and motivations involved in the community-building process that shaped the construction of four planned, exclusive suburbs between 1877 and 1917. She argues that an understanding of  the suburban ideal requires an analysis of its cultural meanings.  She advocates using performance models and archeology to aquire patterns of behavior and thought and reveal their cultural meanings. 
James Davis. Who is Black? Pennsylvania, The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991 (HK)
Significant numbers of blacks are attaining important political and other positions and making educational and occupational gains.  But unfortunately, blacks as a whole have lost many of the earlier political, legal, and educational gains.  And the gaps between whites and blacks in percentage of employment and in average family income have increased.  People need a fuller and broader understand of the American way of defining who is black.  In our increasingly multicultural society, there will be almost certainly new cirses in race relation.  New perspective and attitudes, new concepts and social practices, and approproate changes in the nation's law is required.
Ersline peter. African Americans in the New Millenium. Berkeley, Regent Press, 1991(HK)
African Americans' relationship with America, although it has had its restrictions, some of which have been very brutal, has been very brutal, has been in many, many respects epistemologically, ontologically, and ethically very initimate.  That is, the African American has historically been positioned in such a way as to be able to comment upon how the Euro-American thinks, exists, and behaves.  The history of American democracy is in a large part of all. 
Banks William. Black intellectuals. New York and London, W.W. Norton&Company, 1996(hk)
Throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centries, the issues for many black intelectuals have not been whether they have special responsibilities to their race but how best to fulfill them.  The grow economic and social diversity within the black community complicated the once simple allegiance of black intellectuals to 'the group'.  The moral authority of black demands, grounded in history and widely accepted in the seventies, was now places in a less noble perspective.

[ By John Hope Franklin Research Center  Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library | Duke University ]. The John Hope Franklin Research Center is a repository for African and African American studies documentation and an educational outreach division of the Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library, Duke University. Founded in November 1995 with the support of its namesake, the distinguished historian John Hope Franklin, the Center seeks to collect, preserve, and promote the use of library materials bearing on the history of Africa and people of African descent. (QJY, Jan, 2000)
By National Park Service. Classroom-ready lesson plans about black history from Teaching with Historic Places, including these four aspects of black history.  All these could be used in teaching units on the Progressive Era, or on the themes of segregation, education, and the evolution of civil rights for African Americans in the first part of the 20th century. (QJY, Jan, 2000)
When Rice Was King, 
The Old Courthouse in St. Louis: Yesterday and Today
Iron Hill School: An African-American One Room School
Chicago's Black Metropolis: Understanding History through a Historic Place.
1997, by  Yazoo County Convention and Visitors Bureau.Oakes African-American Cultrual Center Yazoo City is a place rich in history and heritage. For many years, the Yazoo County Fair and Civic League, Inc., a private, non-profit corporation, has been working to improve living conditions in the black...
(QJY, Jan, 2000)
By The Trustees of Indiana University. This web site is about the culture about African Americans. (QJY, Jan, 2000)
© 1997 Map created by Ernie Woodson. This web site is about Buffalo neighborhood centers on the residential area north of Martin Luther King Jr. Park. The buildings reflect the neighborhood's African-American cultural identity. (QJY, Jan, 2000)
By Loyola College in Maryland - 4501 North Charles Street, Baltimore African-American students can come together to express and share their cultural values and influences, and to discuss ways of incorporating their cultural identities into their college experiences. (HK, Jan, 2000)
By R. Jeneen Jones Guide Jeneen tracks. African American's most influential subculture in all its form, from small neighborhood to cyberspace and beyond. (HK, Jan, 2000)
By John Fischer.  Learn about African American Cultural events and resources in Philadelphia. (HK, Jan, 2000)

University of Illinois,
Department of Architecture and Landscape of Architecture
Erin Mallicoat, Hee Kim, & Qiaojue Yu

East St. Louis Action Research Project
University of Illinois at urbana-Champaign