Urban Ecology

Runoff mitigation: East St. Louis faces a problem with flooding frequently, its location within a flood plain on the Mississippi River has it so that drainage and flooding are a big problem in East St. Louis.  The planning and design of East St. Louis does not take this issue seriously. St. Louis and East St. Louis are separated by the Mississippi River.  In between them is Bloody island, which at one time was surrounded by the Mississippi River on both sides.  Robert E. Lee was the engineer hired to to dam off and divert sides of the river, by doing so development of the lands around the river would be easier. Numerous diversion ditches and flood walls line the area between St. Louis and East St. Louis.  East St. Louis' location east of Bloody Island has left it vulnerable to flooding problems.
East St. Louis lies within the Mississippi River flood plain
The land around East St. Louis is suffering from chronic flooding.  Land around the East St. Louis area that suffered from chronic flooding was purchased in 1996 by FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Administration).  FEMA  thought these lands to pose to much flooding threats and therefore was unsuitable for habitation. The Mississippi River flooded in 1993 causing major damage to all of the states the river runs through.

The river floods on yearly level rising and falling feets at a time.  East St. Louis falls victim to this flooding yearly and looses a lot of revenue in the process.  Seen above are the shadows of the Arch in St. Louis, the height of the river is at its highest here since 1993.

The view above is one towards East St. Louis during the flood of 1993.  A lot of damage was done during that year and lots of revenue and houses were lost that year.  The flood of 1993 in addition to the many floods from previous years have led East St. Louis for a solution to alleviate the chronic flooding problems it faces on a yearly basis.

References and Sources

"Prediction and Mitigation of Flash Floods", 1.26.00
    This web site is devoted to the understanding and handling of flood issues and problems.  Poor soils and un-researched planning have led to issues pertaining to flooding and perhaps death in certain situations.  The main problem is poor planning has led to people living near and around rivers and streams that tend to flood
frequently. New technologies will lead to better understanding and detection of the problems with flooding.  Weather surveillance radar's are now being implemented into use by agencies.  Better understanding of rainfall studies and on site sensors will lead to help prevent flash flooding related problems. -IJ

"Management of Florida's Everglades", 1.26.00
    The Institute for Ecological Economics has developed a study of Florida's Everglades. Florida's Everglades is a problem area with flooding and water management in general.  The web site follows through on several models and solutions to issues of water management.  The models follow through on the dynamics of flooding on the landscape.  -IJ

"Storm Water Management", 1.26.00
     Snyder & Associates, Inc. is an engineering and planning firm. Their company does comprehensive drainage and master plans for a variety of clients.  Their services offered are: storm water management, site grading/runoff options and complete analysis ranging from master planning for areas exceeding a thousand acres, including lake/impoundment structures to localized site plan analysis for on site storm water detention.  -IJ

"Flood Plain Management Services and Coastal Resources Branch"
    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers linked the agency of FPMS Flood Plain Management Services as well as a few others agencies that work on controlling floods and emergency relief of flood prone areas. Other agencies such as PAS Planning Assistance to States Program and NFPC National Flood Proofing Committee exist and do works with runoff mitigation and storm water management  -IJ

"1998 Flood Damage Reduction"
    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers works in the field of flood relief as well as developing technologies to prevent flooding.  In  1998 alone they were able to assess and develop preventative measures that saved the United States billions of dollars in damages.  The web page sites states, provides statistics and figures that U.S. Army Corps of Engineers were able to produce during the fiscal year of 1998.  -IJ

"Stormwater management: Shifting the present paradigm."  Wilding, Duane A.; Clarke Raymond P.; Ballantine Robert.  Public Works, v. 130 no. 8 (July 1999), pp. 54-56.
    The writer discusses changes that need to be made to management practices for storm water runoff.  Much of the money that has so far been expended to
improve the water quality of streams could be lost as watersheds are increasingly stressed by the expansion of urban centers  into rural and undeveloped areas.
The water quality of receiving streams is further degraded by a lack of  maintenance, a lack of storm water management practices in urban areas, and the ineffectiveness of the storm water management practices of the 1970s, 1980s, and early  1990s.  New, watershed friendly, storm water management  practices that mimic nature are the solution. (Wilson Select Databases)

"Technology aids flood planning, response." Johnson, Julia. American City & County , v. 114 no. 2 (February 1999), pp. 47.
    The author of this article praises the town of Fort Collins, Colorado which had minimal damage to its town after a major storm in the area.  The city set  up drainage and flood management programs before the storm.  In response to that the the storm had done minimal damage.  The article also discusses the use of technology such as GIS to form a  larger database about flood prone and damaged areas. They are using this technology to the towns flood response capabilities.      -IJ

"Landfill storm water channels use cellular confinement technology."  Sochovka, Rob; Benedict, Nelson; Bodner, Rick. Public Works, v. 130 no. 11 (October 1999), pp. 56.
    The construction and closure of the Empire Landfill in Taylor, Pennsylvania, was designed to protect the facility and surrounding area from accelerated erosion while accommodating the flows from a 100 year, 24 hour storm.  The landfill has double lined cells with a geosynthetic sandwich of geotextile HDPE liners and stone aggregate on top of a clayey soil subbase.  It also has a complete storm water management system that features a series of channels with high erosion potential in the diversion and interceptor channels. (Wilson Select Databases)

Harris, Charles W. and Dines, Nicholas T.  Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture : Second Edition,  McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., New York, 1998, pp. 330-2 to 330-49.
    This comprehensive book is a must for any Landscape Architect.  It covers most issues addressed by the Landscape Architecture profession.  Particularly it devotes an entire section to Storm water Management. The book takes time to definitively cover the issue of Storm water Management and then goes into proper solutions and design methods.  -IJ

Strom, Steven and Nathan, Kurt. Site Engineering for Landscape Architects : Second Edition, Van Nostrand Reinhold , New York, 1993.
    This is a complete  Site Engineering book, it covers topics such as Storm water Management and Design and Sizing of Storm water. Issues such as drainage, construction, grading, soil conservation and other Landscape Architecture topics are covered in this book.  More importantly it prescribes planning solutions as to the design of areas with proper drainage.  -IJ

Herricks, Edwin E. and Jenkins, Jackie R., Storm water runoff and Receiving Systems Impact Monitoring and Assessment, CRC Lewis Publishers,
Boca Raton, 1995.
    The primary focus of storm water and urban runoff research during the past twenty five years has been on the physical description and the
chemical quality assessment of runoff events and the design and implementation of the best management practices to control these events. There
is a definite need for more effective integration of receiving system issues in the management and regulation of storm water runoff.
This new book successfully brings together a diverse group of environmental specialists to address the issues surrounding the assessment,
management, and control of storm water, and more specifically urban runoff, from a receiving system perspective. The book's emphasis on the
receiving system is timely, coming during a period when the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is placing increasing emphasis on wet weather
conditions through a new permit program for storm water runoff and a policy on combined sewer overflows. (www.floridaplants.com)

Document author(s) : Ishmael Joya & Jassen Johnson
HTML by : Ishmael Joya & Jassen Johnson
Last modified: 1/24/99