School of Architecture University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign



ARCH 372, LA 338 and UP 378- Design Studio - Spring 02

Prof. Lynne Dearborn, Ph.D. (ABD),  School of Architecture

Prof. Laura Lawson, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Department of Landscape Architecture

Prof. Robert I. Selby, AIA, Associate Professor of Architecture

Janni Sorensen, Ph.D. Candidate, Research Assistant in Urban and Regional Planning

A Collaborative, Interdisciplinary East St. Louis Action Research Project (ESLARP) Studio Workshop

Neighborhood Redevelopment

This course is an architectural design studio working collaboratively with an Urban Planning Workshop, UP 378, conducted by Janni Sorensen, Ph. D (ABD), and a Landscape Architecture Studio, LA 338, taught by Prof. Laura Lawson.  This site will be the "headquarters" page for all collaborative activities.  Additional notes and assignments may appear on separate pages for UP 378 and LA 338.

This document is best viewed on Internet Explorer

To find out more about Professor Selby see:

To find out more about Janni Sorensen, see:

This studio will be conducted in association with the East St. Louis Action Research Project.  For information on ESLARP see:

Click on "courses" to view projects from the Spring 2001 collaborative studio.

To find images of the South End neighborhood, see:

To find ariel photos of the South End neighborhood, see:

Large Image:

Small Image:

To view Ariel with street names:

ESLARP interdisciplinary team studio:

The studio will be comprised of interdisciplinary teams working on neighborhood master planning and the programming a preliminary schematic design of a community facilty to be determined as part of the planning process.

You will be working for a community based orginazation in the South End neighborhood of East St. Louis called the South End New Development Organization (SENDO), Ms. Fern Watts, President.  Perhaps we will learn that the neighborhood wants housing prototypes (as Emerson Park has for several semesters) or other projects (such as the Emerson Park Light Rail Station or the Farmer's Market in Winstanley/Industry Park Neighborhood.)  But today, we're not sure what architectural or landscape architectural project type will fit the comprehensive plan, which you will help develop.  This is the nature of ESLARP studios.  The real world is messy and not always in synch with the academic calendar. To sample a multi-disciplinary, multi-year planning and architectural study conducted in the Emerson Park neighborhood click here.  If you use Internet Explorer you may view a Power Point presentation called "The Engaged University" at

Frequent field trips to East St. Louis will be required for all studio/workshop participants. There will be two different kinds of trips to East St. Louis. Outreach Weekends will typically begin on Friday mornings at 7 am and will conclude on Saturday evenings before 9 pm. Trips to participate in neighborhood organizations monthly meetings will typically begin on the first Wednesday of the month and we should be back on campus at approximately 11 pm. The College of Fine and Applied Arts’ East St. Louis Action Research Project will fund all travel, food and lodging expenses necessitated by these trips.

Who should elect this studio?

Students who elect this studio should have a passion for team work, reciprocal learning (you learn from neighborhood residents and they learn from you as you about innovations in revitalizing inner city neighborhoods), making a difference, being involved in the "real" world, having your work judged and appreciated by "real" people, and a passion for hard work.

Students who elect this studio should be flexible.  Unlike "unreal" world studios, the faculty do not have absolute control of the schedule, or the program.

Students who elect this studio will learn about web publishing, and will be expected to publish your research reports, programming recommendations, and design guidelines and neighborhood plans on the world wide web.

Course Description:

More than 2,000 community development corporations have been established in the United States since 1965. These community-based organizations have played an increasingly important role in expanding the supply of jobs, affordable housing and social services in many low-income urban communities. Supported by local religious organizations, financial institutions, regional foundations and municipal governments, community development corporations have emerged as the primary organizational vehicles for neighborhood stabilization and community revitalization in many U.S. cities. The increasingly important role which these non-profit organizations play in the urban development plans of municipal government have served to transform community planning into one of the fastest growing specializations within the urban planning profession.

Arch 372, LA 338, and UP 378 introduces students to the community development practice, from an empowerment planning perspective, by offering participants the opportunity to collaborate with East St. Louis residents in the completion of a comprehensive redevelopment plan for a severely distressed neighborhood. Workshop students will cooperate with leaders of East St. Louis's South End in designing a five-year revitalization plan for their community. Workshop participants will be introduced to core theories and methods of neighborhood planning; will formulate a research design and scope of services to investigate existing conditions; will collect and analyze data needed to devise effective solutions to local problems that build on available community assets; and will produce planning documents local leaders can use to guide their future revitalization efforts.

Course Objectives:

Arch 372, LA 338 and UP 378 Community Development Workshop have been designed to assist students in achieving the following educational objectives:

1.) Expose students to critical economic, social, environmental, and political problems confronting residents of our state's most distressed urban neighborhoods;

2.) Introduce students to the principles and practice of contemporary community development from an empowerment planning perspective;

3.) Enhancing the community development knowledge and skills of participating students through active involvement in the design, implementation and evaluation of a challenging neighborhood planning project for an actual partner;

4.) Offer architecture, planning, and landscape architecture  students the opportunity to gain experience working in teams to solve important urban problems undermining the quality of urban life;

5.) Engage students in an ongoing dialogue regarding how local, state, and federal urban policies can be changed to further enhance the organizational capacity of community-based development organizations serving distressed urban communities, such as East St. Louis.

Course Structure:

UP 378 will meet on Fridays from 9-11:50 am and from 1-3:50 pm. Morning classes will feature lectures on assigned syllabus topics, student presentations and class discussions of readings. Afternoon classes will involve workshop students in project planning, survey design, data collection/entry and policy analysis activities related to the comprehensive planning process. Arch 372, LA 338 will meet Monday, Wednesday and Friday afternoons.  Friday afternoons will be interdisciplinary working and presentation/discussion sessions. Student will be required to do oral presentations on the assigned reading for class interactive discussions. All students will be required to keep a sketchbook/ journal,  with notations of individual reflections on each of the readings.  (See section below for full requirements.)

Frequent field trips to East St. Louis will be required for all workshop participants. There will be two different kinds of trips to East St. Louis. Outreach Weekends will typically begin on Friday mornings at 7 am and will conclude on Saturday evenings before 9 pm. Trips to participate in neighborhood organizations monthly meetings will typically be held on the first Wednesday of the month and we should be back on campus at approximately 11 pm. The College of Fine and Applied Arts’ East St. Louis Action Research Project will fund all travel, food and lodging expenses necessitated by these trips.

Course Requirements:

   1.          Regular attendance and active participation in each workshop class.

   2.          Timely completion of all assigned readings and preparation for classroom discussion of these items, including
                interdisciplinary group presentations, and individual sketchbook/ journal entries for all readings.

   3.          Active participation in all East St. Louis fieldwork activities and community meetings.

   4.          Written contribution to the Neighborhood Improvement Plan, including drafts posted to the course web-board
                ( ).

   5.          Effective oral presentation of the plan before a mixed audience of peers, faculty, community residents and municipal officials.

   6.          A web page must be created by the group and the final plan as well as a process description must be published there

Digital Planning Resources:

UIUC's East St. Louis Action Research Project maintains an impressive web site with a wealth of information regarding East St. Louis and its people. You should take full advantage of the resources available through this site by visiting:

The ABCD institute:

Another good source of information is the COMM-Org web site. You might consider signing on to their list serve.

The Urban Institute is a good source of information:

For information on Participatory Action Research try visiting the Cornell based PAR-net:

McAuley Institute is a national, nonprofit housing organization founded by the Sisters of Mercy. McAuley provides state-of-the-art technical assistance and financial resources to grassroots organizations that work to expand housing and economic opportunities for low-income women and their families.

HomeSight is an annotated and rated resource guide of housing agencies, projects, policies, designs, and publications available on the Internet.

The Planners Network is an association of professionals, activists, academics, and students involved in physical, social, economic and environmental planning in urban and rural areas, who promote fundamental change in our political and economic system.

National Low-Income Housing Coalition (NLIHC):

The Brookings institute’s Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy studies:


Course Grading:
   1.          Class attendance and participation   10%
   2.          Written assignments, sketchbook/journal entries and presentations on assigned readings 30%
   3.          Contribution to East St. Louis fieldwork efforts including quality of oral presentations 20%
   4.          Quality of Neighborhood Plan including representations of precedents and proposed design concepts   30%
   5.          Quality of web page 10% (required to post your final grade)


Arch 372 and LA 338 meet Monday, Wednesday, and Friday afternoons.  UP 378 meets mornings and afternoons on Fridays.  Arch 372, LA 338, and UP 378 meet together Friday afternoons beginning in Plym Auditorium, Buell Hall.  372 and 338 will meet Mondays and Wednesdays and work on assignments due Friday.  372, 338, and 378 students will meet together on Fridays and throughout the week outside of class.
Schedule (subject to revision)  BEST VIEWED USING EXPLORER
Books on ereserve may be found by clicking on the following URL:

Then click on the class

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Friday (work with planning)
Week One
Set up studios 
Before class:complete the following exercises in your sketchbook (from Hester, Randolph.Community Design Primer.Mendocino:Ridge Times Press, 1990.Book is available at UGL Reserve Desk):
Environmental Autobiography 
Design Inspiration 
Presentation by Robert Selby on Emerson Park
Form interdisciplinary groups:empowerment, urban poverty, gender, ethnicity, and economic development 
Readings available by e-reserve unless otherwise noted (complete evaluation in sketchbook): 
Jones, Bernie. Neighborhood Planning: A Guide for Citizens and Planners. Bigtown: Planners Press, American Planning Association, 1990. pp. 1-38. 
Alta Sita Plan Part I; online at 
Hester, Randolph.“Introduction to Community Design” and “Values of Community Designers.” In Community Design Primer.Mendocino: Ridge Times Press, 1990. pp. 2-25, 51-58. (Not available on e-reserve; book at UGL Reserve Desk)
Week Two
MLK Jr. Day
Before class: do the following exercises (from CDP):
Environments to Love 
Readings (complete evaluation in sketchbook): 
Jacobs, Allen. “Clues” and “Seeing Change” from Looking at Cities.Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985, pp. 30-83, 99-107. 
Lynch, Kevin.Image of the City. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1960. (Skim entire book and carefully read chapters 1 and 3) Not available on e-reserve; book at UGL Reserve Desk. 
Student presentations on Empowerment
Tutorial on web publishing 
Prepare SWOT and Cognitive Mapping Exercise 
Reflection Exercise: write/draw in sketchbook about what you think you will see and learn about in ESL 
Readings (evaluation in sketchbook): 
Reardon, Kenneth M. Community Development in Low-Income Minority Neighborhood: A Case for Empowerment Planning.Unpublished, 1996. 

Francis, Mark.“Proactive Practice: Visionary Thought and Participatory Action in Environmental Design.” Places 12, 2 (Winter 1999): 60-8. 

Rivlin, Leanne. “The Neighborhood, Personal Identity, and Group Affiliations.”In Neighborhood and Community Environments. Edited by Irwin Altman and Abraham Wandersman.New York: Plenum Press, 1987.pp. 1-31.

Week Three
1/28, 31, 2/1
Turn in sketchbook/ journals at beginning of class (to include exercises, reflections, miscellaneous sketches, and reading evaluations)
Before class: do the following exercise:
Environmental Justice from CDP in your sketchbook

Field Trip to East St. Louis (Friday through Sunday)

Tasks to Complete in ESL: 
Neighborhood conditions 
Impressions in sketchbook 
Readings (evaluations in sketchbook): 
Reardon, Kenneth M.“East St. Louis, Illinois.” In Rebuilding Urban Neighborhoods.Keating and Krumholz, editors.New York: Sage Publications, 1999. (Ch. 8) 

Reardon, Kenneth M. 1998. "Enhancing the Capacity of Community Based Organizations in East St. Louis," Journal of Planning Education and Research, 17:323-333. 

Reardon, Kenneth M. 1998. “Back from the Brink” Gateway Heritage (Winter 1997-8): 5-15.

Week Four
Urban Poverty
Turn in sketchbook
Preparation for SENDO meeting
SENDO Meeting in ESL: 
Present initial data
Discuss results of SENDO meeting.
Analyze data, census information, physical factors, etc. 
Student presentations on Urban Poverty
Readings (evaluation in sketchbook): 
Wilson, William Julius. "From Institutional to Jobless Ghettos" and "Societal Changes and Vulnerable Neighborhoods." In When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.pp. 3-50. 
Keating and Krumholz, Rebuilding Urban Neighborhoods.New York: Sage Publications, 1999. Chapters 1,2,5,7,12. (Not on e-reserve; book available at UGL Reserve Desk) 
Millar, Norman.“Street Survival: The Plight of the Los Angeles Street Vendors.” Everyday Urbanism. New York: Monacelli Press, 1999. pp. 135-151. (Not available on e-reserve; book at UGL Reserve Desk) 
Hood, Walter.“Urban Diaries: Improvisation in West Oakland.” Everyday Urbanism. New York: Monacelli Press, 1999. pp. 152-173. (not available on e-reserve; book at UGL Reserve Desk) 

Smith, Neil.“The New City, the New Frontier: The Lower East Side as Wild, Wild West.”In Variations on a Theme Park.Edited by Michael Sorkin.New York: Noonday Press, 1992.pp. 61-93, 238-242.

Week Five

2/11, 13, 15
Gender in Community Development
Turn in sketchbook/ journals
Work on inventory/analysis
Assign tasks for documenting inventory and data for the final report
Student presentations on Gender in Community Development
Readings (evaluation in sketchbook): 
Appleton, Lynn. “The Gender Regimes of the American City.”In Gender in Urban Research.New York: Sage Publications, 1995. pp. 44-59. 
Rabrenovic, Gordana.“Women and Collective Action in Urban Neighborhoods.”In Gender in Urban Research.New York: Sage Publications, 1995. pp. 77-96. 
Eichler, Margrit “Change of Plans, towards a non-sexist sustainable city”, Garamond Press 1995. pp. 1-25, 51-71, 131-157.
Week Six
2/18, 20, 22
Turn in sketchbook
“Spinning Scenarios” exercise
Discuss Program Development
Assignment to conduct “conceptual analysis” as group project 
Readings (evaluation in sketchbook): 
Examples of previous plans online chapters 3-8. 
Crawford, Margaret.“Blurring the Boundaries: Public Space and Private Life.” Everyday Urbanism.New York: Monacelli Press, 1999. pp. 22-35. 
Taylor, Ralph B. and Adele V. Harrell.Physical Environment and Crime: A Report to the U.S. Department of Justice. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice, 1996.

Hood, Walter.“Opening Day is Not Everyday.” Democratic Design in the Pacific Rim.Edited by Randolph T. Hester and Corrina Kweskin.Mendocino: Ridge Times Press, 1999. pp. 116-123.

Week Seven
2/25, 27, 3/1
Turn in sketchbook
Work in groups
Present Conceptual Analyses
Annotated Bibliography due:5-10 citations of articles, books, and websites.
Week Eight
3/4, 6, 8
Prepare for SENDO meeting, including lists of what we don’t yet know
SENDO Meeting in ESL:
Present data, probe for further understanding
ESL Outreach Weekend I (Friday through Saturday) 
Week Nine
3/11, 13, 15
Topic: Ethnicity in Community Development
Turn in sketchbook
Debrief from SENDO meeting and ESL Outreach Weekend
Program topic brainstorming
Discuss design project ideas
Finalize program topics and groups
Student presentations on Ethnicity in Community Development
Readings (evaluations in sketchbook): 
Darden, Duleep, Galster “Civil Rights In Metropolitan America” (1992), Journal of Urban Affairs, vol. 14, n.3/4.pp. 469-496. 
Conley, Dalton Being Black, Living in the Red. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999. Ch. 1-3.(Not available on e-reserve; book at UGL Reserve Desk). 
DiChiro, Giovanna.“Nature as Community: The Environment and Social Justice.” Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature.New York: W.W. Norton, 1995. pp. 298-320, 527-531.
Week Ten
Spring Break
Spring break
Spring break
Spring break
Week Eleven
3/25, 27, 29
Economic Development
Student presentations on Economic Development
Readings (evaluations in sketchbook): 
Chapters 3, 4, 12 in Blair/Reese 
Thomas, June Manning and Reynard N. Blake, Jr. "Faith-Based Community Development and the African American Community." In Revitalizing Urban Neighborhoods. Edited by W. Dennis Keating, Norman Krumholz and Philip Star. Lawrence: The University Press of Kansas, 1996.pp. 131-147. 
Porter, Michael E. “f The Competitive Advantage of the Inner City.” Harvard Business Review 73 (5): 55-71.
Week Twelve
4/1, 3, 5
Turn in sketchbook

SENDO Meeting in ESL: 

Prioritize program topics for plan;
Design Charette
PRELIMINARY REVIEW (with outside faculty):present work in-progress
Week Thirteen
4/8, 10, 12
Prepare for Summit
Polish presentation for Summit
Summit in ESL:
Larger community meeting 
Present ideas and get feedback
Week Fourteen
4/15, 17, 19
Turn in sketchbook
Week Fifteen
4/22, 24, 26
FINAL REVIEW: Group Presentations
Week Sixteen
4/29, 5/1, 3
Group Presentations due in website format as “chapters” to Final Plan
Week Seventeen
Final sketchbook due
Final Plan must be available on the group web site and individual contributions turned in
May (date to be determined)
Present Final Plan to Residents


During the design process for this community design studio-workshop, significant emphasis will be placed on thought-provoking exercises, information gathering, personal and group reflection, required readings and their critical evaluation, and the documentation of these design process components by students in the studio-workshop.  Each student will document all components of his or her design process in the required sketchbook/journal for this studio.

The course schedule clearly identifies required exercises, readings and critical evaluation to be completed for studio/workshop each week.  In addition, all students should incorporate documentation of information gathered, their personal and their group reflections, and a running list of relevant thought provoking questions and issues in their sketchbooks/journals.  Entries in journals/sketchbooks should combine a balance of written and graphic material, an occasional photograph and/or precedent documentation may also be included but student-generated graphic and written material should make up the majority of journal/sketchbook content.

Assessment of journal/sketchbook entries has considerable weight in student grades for this course (see course grading section in the syllabus).  The course schedule identifies dates for regular hand-ins of sketchbook/journal for assessment by course faculty.  Hand-ins are generally scheduled for the beginning of class on Mondays (check schedule for specific dates); every effort will be made by faculty to return sketchbooks/journals to students by the following day.

Required exercises:

The class schedule identifies specific exercises from the book Community Design Primer, by R. Hester that students must complete before class on certain days.  Responses to these exercises and any other assigned exercises are to be included in each student’s sketchbook/journal.  In addition, responses and sketchbook/journal entries will be discussed in studio-workshop where noted in the course schedule.

Required reading and reflection:

All students must complete all required readings before each week’s Wednesday or Friday afternoon session (as noted in schedule), as required reading will provide useful fodder for class and group discussions.  Some students may find some readings quite easy to comprehend, digest and use while the value and clarity of other readings may be obscure and ambiguous to some.  As part of the process of reading, digesting and using, faculty ask that each student critically evaluate each of the required readings and include a written critical evaluation of each in their sketchbook/journal.

Although each student may approach his or her evaluation in his or her preferred manner, a suggested framework of question for evaluating is provided below.  Regardless of format, an adequate evaluation of a reading should be between 200 and 500 words and should highlight the main points of the reading, the student’s response to the reading and some sense of how the student feels the reading informs his/her understanding of designing in the South End Neighborhood in East St. Louis.

Suggested framework for written critical evaluations of required readings:

1. What are the main points/arguments brought out in the reading?

2. What is your initial response to the reading?  Is the reading insightful?  Do you question issues brought up?  Are the main arguments and/or statements well supported with data, findings of other research, images, and/or descriptions or is this an essay written without supporting information? (Here is where you should be critical as you read and reread.)  Did you come across a reading that you feel for appropriately addresses the issue?  (If so please fully identify the reading for the benefit of faculty and other students.)

3. How does the material in this reading inform your understanding of designing in the South End Neighborhood in East St. Louis?

4. Is the material more generally useful to your design education and how?

Grading criteria for sketchbook/journal:

A (Excellent)

Entries are of exceptional quality (graphic and written), insightful and integrative.  Addresses the basic requirements for required exercises, readings and evaluations assigned in the course schedule prior to specific hand-in date.  Shows student has found, read and integrated at least three additional articles/chapters/books on the course topic for the week. Work shows superlative understanding and reflection.  In addition to required exercises and evaluations, student has included a minimum of 9 pages per week of personal reflection and though/design process documentation of written and graphic nature (including writing, diagrams and sketches).  Sketchbook/journal entries show that student is exceedingly motivated and has successfully integrated material from exercises, readings and reflections into design process documentation.  Includes additional bibliographic references.

B (Good)

Entries are of above average quality (graphic and written) and perceptive.  Addresses the basic requirements for required exercises, readings and evaluations assigned in the course schedule prior to specific hand-in date.  Shows student has found and read at least one additional article/chapter/book on the specific course topic for the week. Work shows above average understanding and reflection.  In addition to required exercises and evaluations, student has included a minimum of 6 pages per week of personal reflection and though/design process documentation of written and graphic nature (including writing, diagrams and sketches).  Sketchbook/journal entry shows that student has begun to integrate material from exercises, readings and reflections into design process documentation.  Includes additional bibliographic references.

C (Average)

Entries are of average quality (graphic and written) and show some thoughtful reflection.  Addresses all of the basic requirements for required exercises, readings and evaluations assigned in the course schedule prior to specific hand-in date.  Work shows normal level of understanding and reflection for studio level.  In addition to required exercises and evaluations, student has included a minimum of three pages per week of personal reflection and though/design process documentation of written and graphic nature (including writing, diagrams and sketches).

D (Poor)

Addresses some but not all of the basic requirements for required exercises, readings and evaluations assigned in the course schedule prior to specific hand-in date.  Work shows lack of understanding and reflection.  The student has not included at least three pages per week of personal reflection and though/design process documentation of written and graphic nature (including writing, diagrams and sketches), in addition to required exercises and evaluations.

F (Failure)

Addresses few of the basic requirements for required exercises, readings and evaluations assigned in the course schedule prior to specific hand-in date.  Work shows little understanding and limited reflection.  The student has not included personal reflection and though/design process documentation of written and graphic nature (including writing, diagrams and sketches), in addition to required exercises and evaluations.


Bacon, Edmund N.  Design of Cities.  New York:  Viking Penguine, 1976. (A father of city planning and the father of Kevin Bacon, film actor.)

Bullard, Robert D. Dumping in Dixie.  Bolder, CO: Westview Press, 1990.  (A book on race, class and environmental quality.)

Bullard, Robert D. (Ed.)  Unequal Protection. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1994. (A book about environmental justice in communities of

Calthorpe, Peter.  The Next American Metropolis.  New York:  Princeton Architectural Press, 1993. (Good content, good graphic techniques to
copy.  Good reference to walking distances in community planning.)

Chermayeff, Serge and Christopher Alexander. Community and Privacy.  Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1963.  (An important early work
on zoning for privacy, a critical  environment/behavior issue in housing.)

Cooper-Marcus, Clare and Wendy Sarkissian. Housing as if People Mattered. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.  (Focuses on
multi-family housing, but many of the environment/behavior issues translate to single family and duplex housing.)

Cullen, Gordon.  (The Concise) Townscape.  New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1961. (A way of viewing cities as one moves through space.
Also a great book to use for copying quick freehand sketches that capture the essence and details of urban and architectural spaces.)

Dramstad, Wenche E., James D. Olson, and Richard T. T. Forman. (Eds.)  Landscape Ecology Principles in Landscape Architecture and
Land-Use Planning.  Washington, DC: Island Press,1996.  (Simple but holistic book that ties together land, water, wildlife, and people.)

Forman, Richard T. T. Land Mosaics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. (The ecology of landscapes and regions.)

Freyfogle, Eric T. Bounded People, Bounded Lands.  Washington, DC: Island Press, 1998.  (A book that proposes a new land ethic that is less
destructive toward the land, that views nature as something to be valued and nurtured rather than exploited and developed.)

Harker, Donald F. and Elizabeth Ungar Natter. Where We Live.  Washington, DC: Island Press, 1995. (A guide for conducting a
community/environment inventory.)

Hester, Randolph T. Community Design Primer. Mendocino, CA: Ridge Times Press, 1990.  (A very useful workbook on issues and
participatory approaches to community design.)

Hayden, Dolores.  Redesigning the American Dream:  The Future of Housing, Work, and Family Life.  New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1984.
(An examination of what the definition of housing will be in the future.)

Hiss, Tony.  Experience of Place.  New York: Vintage Books, 1990.  (A new way of looking at and dealing with our radically changing cities and

Jacobs, Jane.  The Death and Live of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage Books, 1961. (An excellent view of city building by a
non-design professional.)

Jones, Tom, William Bettus, AIA, Michael Pyatok, FAIA. Good Neighbors: Affordable Family Housing. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995.  (An
excellent reference on process and design guidelines for multi-family housing.)

Katz, Peter.  The New Urbanism:  Toward an Architecture of Community.  San Francisco: McGraw-Hill, 1994.  (An extremely important
reference on neo-traditional design.)

Kidder, Tracy.  House.  New York:  Avon Books, 1985.  (Reads like a novel. Describes an actual history of design and building a new house.
Maybe put this on your summer reading list.)

Kelbaugh, Douglas.  Common Place: Toward Neighborhood and Regional Design. Seattle: Washington University Press, 1997. (Good case

Langdon, Philip.  A Better Place to Live.  New York: HarperCollins, 1995. (Also an important reference on new urbanism.)

Lewis, Charles A. Green Nature Human Nature.  Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1996.  (The meaning of plants in our lives.)

Lynch, Kevin.  The Theory of Good City Form.  Cambridge, MA:  The MIT Press, 1981. (Answers to the questions: What makes a good city?)

Lynch, Kevin and Gary Hack.  Site Planning.  Cambridge, MA:  The MIT Press, 1984. (The classic "bible" of site planning, community planning.)

Martin, Joanne M. & Elmer P. The Helping Tradition in the Black Family and Community.  Silver Springs, MD: National Association of Social
Workers, Inc., 1985.  (A guide to a strong cultural influence that may inform your design thinking on housing and neighborhood design.)

McHarg, Ian L.  Design with Nature.  New York:  John Wiley & Sons, 1992. (Deals with man's relationship to the environment as a whole.)

Medoff, Peter and Holly Sklar.  Streets of Hope: The Fall and Rise of an Urban Neighborhood.  Boston: South End Press, 1994.  (A good case
study of community-initiated urban redesign for social justice.)

Moore, Charles, Gerald Allen, Donlyn Lyndon. The Place of Houses.  New York:  Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1987.  (Three architects suggest
ways to build and inhabit houses.  See how some of Corbu's houses were remodeled to meet the standards of its inhabitants.)

Newman, Oscar.  Defensible Space.  New York:  Collier Books, 1973. (The "bible" of "CPTED" crime prevention through environmental design.)

Newman, Oscar.  Community of Interest. Garden City, NY: Anchor Press, 1980. (The "bible" on gated communities.)

Norberg-Schulz, Christian.  Genius Loci.  New York: Rizzoli, 1979. (About the spirit of place.)

Olgyay, Victor.  Design with Climate.  Princeton, NJ:  Princeton University Press, 1963. (The "bible" of "bioclimatic" design.)

Peters, Erskine.  African Americans in the New Mellennium: Blueprinting the Future.  Berkeley, CA:  Regent Press, 1992.  (Written by an
author who defines himself as “…an African-Indo-Euro American because I am both a biological and cultural fragment of Africans, of Native
Americans (who entrusted their blood to my lineage) and of Europeans who imposed their blood upon my lineage…”)

Porterfield, Gerald A. and Kenneth B. Hall, Jr.  A Concise Guide to Community Planning.  New York:  McGraw-Hill, 1995.  (A good "pattern
book" for community planning ideas.)

Rowe, Peter G. Making a Middle Landscape.  Cambridge:  MIT Press, 1991.  (The "middle landscape" is between city and country.)

Rybczynski, Witold.  Home: A Short History of and Idea.  New York:  Viking Press, 1986.  (Chapters include such topics as intimacy and
privacy, domesticity, comfort and well being.)

Simonds, John Ormsbee.  Garden Cities 21.  New York:  McGraw-Hill, 1994. (Creating livable urban environments.)

Smith, Robert C. and Richard Seltzer.  Race, Class and Culture: A Study in Afro-American Mass Opinion.  Albany: State University of New
York Press, 1992.  (Are there race, class or cultural differences regarding environmental preferences?)

Spirn, Anne Winston.  The Granite Garden. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1994 (A book on design and management of urban ecosystems.)

Van der Ryne and Peter Calthorpe. Sustainable Communities.  San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1991.  (Good questions and answers.)

Walter, Bob, et al. (Eds.) Sustainable Cities. Los Angles: Eco-Home Media, 1992. (Concepts and strategies.)

Wentling, James.  Designing a Place Called Home.  New York: Chapman & Hall, 1995 (An excellent book of prototypes, good graphics with
well reasoned text.)

Wekerle, Gerda R. and Carolyn Whitzman.  Safe Cities.  New York:  Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1995.  (Design guidelines.)


The following are recommended for their content, graphic excellence and affordability:

Ching, Francis D.K. Architecture: Form, Space & Order. New York:  Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1979.

Ching, Francis D.K. Interior Design Illustrated.  New York:  Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1987.

Ching, Francis D.K. Building Construction Illustrated.  New York:  Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1975.

The following are recommended references for design guidelines, architectural detailing, and structural design and detailing.  These references
are more expensive than the above and may be found in Ricker Library of Architecture and Art.  I highly recommend placing Architectural
Graphic Standards in your permanent personal library as soon as possible.  I have copies of all of these references.  If you would like to examine
any  of them please feel free to stop by my office.

Allen, Edward and Joseph Iano.  The Architects' Studio Companion: Technical Guidelines for Preliminary Design.  New York:  John Wiley &
Sons, 1989.

Callender, John Hancock.  Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data.  New York:  McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1982.

De Chiara, Joseph & John Callender. Time-Saver Standards for Building Types.  New York:  McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1980.

Ramsey, Charles and Harold Sleeper. Architectural Graphic Standards.  New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1981.


1. Design Process

Design is a process of discovery through intense effort and continuous experiment.  Some call this process trial and error, but I prefer trial and
discovery.  A design iteration is not erroneous - it is a single step on a path of inquiry which informs the designer where the next step should be
directed.  In the study and practice of architecture you've really got to love the process.  The "chase" is nearly as important as the "catch."
Accordingly, a primary objective of this design studio is to provide you with an environment conducive for creative thinking so you can develop
your personal design process and control it more effectively.

2. Design Thinking

Design is a mode of inquiry which differs from other intellectual activities.  Using humor as an analogy, design is a "sight gag," it is more "show"
than "tell."  It is active not passive.   You must draw many studies before selecting the best alternatives.  Your drawings need to develop an
architectural maturity, i.e., less naive, schematic or diagrammatic;  more sophisticated, more texture and detail.  The better your graphic
inquiry, the better your architectural designs will become, which in turn will make your graphic presentation more convincing.

Urban design and architectural models are also important tools in the design process, not just as a final presentation technique.  If a picture is
worth a thousand words, a model is worth a thousand pictures.  Models are our closest representations of the built environment.  Models provide
tactile as well as visual information.  Models lead you to a greater understanding of volumes, sequences of spaces, overall architectural massing

and form, structural problems to be solved, etc. Computer models are very effective design tools, esp. as you move through space, study
daylighting and lamp lighting details.

Therefore, you will be working extensively in quick drawing and modeling techniques, esp. freehand drafting and sketch modeling or quick
modeling on the computer (or all of the above).

3. Design Concepts

I define concept as "the essential idea which governs all decisions throughout the design process."  It is the yardstick by which you measure the
appropriateness of design alternatives you have developed.  One example of a concept of a city (community) is: "a city is a house."  If this is
were your concept I would expect you to begin to draw analogies of the house throughout your design process for such elements as entry
sequence, circulation, public areas, private areas, etc.  In the case of "remodeling" an existing city (community) you will need to define a concept
of what the existing city is (as you would if you were remodeling a house).  Your selection of a parti, your proposals for land use and urban and
architectural details are all dependent on your concept.

You will be asked frequently, "what is your concept?" as you develop you architectural design.  Implicit in this question is another set of
questions:  "What is most important as you determine your hierarchy of spaces and volumes?"  "What could be eliminated while preserving your
concept?  What cannot be eliminated, therefore what is essential?"  We will be talking about the "part to whole" relationships, i.e. the
appropriateness of detail decisions relative to the overall concept.

4. Holistic Design

Discussions of part to whole relationships lead us to the concept of holistic design.  Holistic design emphasizes the importance of the whole and
the interdependence of its parts.  Your design will only achieve the status of "architecture" if it is conceived holistically.   It is important to begin to
understand that individual buildings are "details" of  a larger "whole."

Throughout the semester you will participate in design studies to develop a greater understanding of landscape architecture and interior
architecture as subsets of architecture.   Your projects will be evaluated holistically by your studio critic and guest reviewers, as shown on the
Student Design Project Evaluation Form.  Categories on this form include site design and development, architectural design and development,
interior design and development, systems designs and integration.  Site design will be read to mean "urban design" when appropriate.

5. User's Perspective

Design is more than formal problem solving, more than selecting the right parti, more than form and geometry.   Architecture and urban design
are inhabited environments.  People use these environments.  You need to consider the needs and perceptions of the people who will live and
work in environments you design.

6. Design as an Agent of Social Change

Most of our public projects have social implications.  In urban design, for example, we are often "remodeling" existing neighborhoods or
districts.  It isimportant to ask: "Who will  benefit from this project?"  "Are all constituentsrepresented in the redevelopment program?"  If the
project would have (possiblyunintended) social consequences for people who live there, your first creativeact may be to revise the program.

7. Personal Agendas

You are strongly encouraged to tell me what you would like to do for your personal development.


1. Title, Scale, and Orientation (Drawings and Models)

I recommend that you make a project template(s) at the beginning of each project which may be traced, photocopied, or cut and pasted for you

     project title and location
     your name
     my name
     class and semester Arch 372 - Spring 01
     North arrow (on plans), orientation (on elevations)
     drawing title (not "perspective" but "view from ...")
     graphic scale indication
     study number (if not final)

2. Professionalism

    A.    paper presentations

     all uniform sheets (size and orientation) hung carefully (pinned-up) plumb and level or mounted carefully on rigid boards with clear tape
     ordered from general to specific, introduction to conclusion

     B.    computer and world wide web presentations

     clear readable line work and text
     clear, crisp color (where appropriate)
     well composed text, grammatically correct

3. Completeness

     landscaping shown on plans (well studied)
     foreground/background trees on elevations people in elevations, sections,
     vehicles in site plan, elevations and sections
     furnishings, esp. in plans at 1/8"=1'-0" or larger materials (textures) indications in
     plans, elevations.
     notes as appropriate.


1. Materials in studio every day

Have in studio not less than two (2) rolls of 12" yellow "trash."  Draw your ideas and save them in your project drawing file for continuous
reference.  To revise and improve your ideas, overlay the previous one as many times a necessary.  Never stop to erase. Trash is not a family
heirloom.  It is specifically made to be used liberally.  Trash studies often make excellent portfolio exhibits.  They show how (well) you think

Also have in studio blades, cutting boards and materials which are easy to cut and join together as sketch models.  I may look at your drawings
and ask you to do a quick model and suggest that I come back in an hour.  This might be the place to use up scraps of cardboard or foam core
from other projects.  Save your study models for continuous reference.

2. Students' Role/Faculty Role: Action/Reaction

Students are expected to initiate your design process and to engage in it actively as a self-starting individual.  Once you have initiated, then
faculty can react to a number of issues. We can comment on your process and suggest other activities which may prove useful.  We can
comment on the quantity of your ideas and whether more should be considered before committing to a scheme.  We can comment on the
qualities of your ideas, esp. we can comment on how closely your study approaches your stated concept.  We can do none of these things until
you make the first move(s).  Similarly, the more you are prepared for a desk crit, the more advice we can deliver.

3. Preparation as a prerequisite to dialogue

If you are not prepared when we make our rounds in the studio, we will not pause to listen to you talk about what you are going to do.  We will
come back when you are able to show what you have done.  We know that you may not be prepared for a desk crit every time we offer one.
That's reasonable and understandable.  However, if you are seldom or never ready, if you are not actively engaged in the design process, this
will inevitably have a negative effect on your project's  evaluation.  Said in a positive way:  Successful projects most often are products of
intensely active design processes.

4. Record of Daily Discussions and Desk Crits

You are also requested to have in studio every day an 8 1/2 x 11 bound sketchbook for recording your ideas which occur to you outside of
studio.  Many concepts are "incubated" while sleeping, walking, jogging, etc.  Also use your sketchbook to record what we talk about in studio.
When you receive advice, you should document that discussion in studio.  If we lecture on a related subject, you should keep those notes in your
sketchbook.It will become your "job log" and a companion to this course syllabus.

5. Work in Studio

Your are expected to work in studio during scheduled class time.  You are strongly encouraged to work in studio in evenings and on weekends to
gain momentum and insight from your studio colleagues.  It is often said that students learn more from each other than from faculty.  This is
especially true if you work in studio and help each other throughout the semester.

6. Personal Space

You are encouraged to design yourself a pleasant work  environment.

7. Personal Requirements

If you need accommodations for any sort of disability, please speak to us after class, make an appointment to see me, or see me during my
office hours.


1. You are expected to be responsible for all material and assignments discussed during formal studio meetings.  If, for any excused reason, you
are unable to attend, written confirmation should be given to your instructor.

2. Make-up assignments for excused absences may be given by the instructor. If you are a "no call/no show" i.e. you fail to show up for required
presentations with out notice, you will receive an "F" for that phase of the semester.

3. Due dates will be strictly enforced.

4. The heavy use of the studio space and equipment day and night makes it necessary for each student and class to clean up after use,
particularly at the end of a charter.  A few minutes of everyone's time each day devoted to cleaning off tables and depositing trash in the waste
containers will keep the studio in a more pleasant and workable condition, and will reduce the risk of fire.

5. No smoking anywhere indoors.

6. Drafting tables are not to be used as cutting surfaces.  Be sure to use a self-healing mat, a thick piece of chipboard or Masonic for all cutting
and model building at your desk or use the designated cutting tables in your studio.

7. Spray painting and gluing of models and illustration boards is strictly prohibited in this course.  Any work products submitted that have been prepared using spray products will be awarded an automatic "F".  No exceptions!

8. Defacing of equipment, walls, floors, ceilings, fixtures, doors, etc., is strictly forbidden, and will be treated as a serious offense.  Any damage
can result in severe disciplinary action for everyone involved.

9. Building equipment is University property, and not to be removed from the premises.

10. Never directly discard disposable knife blades in trash cans.  For the safety of everyone, including custodians, all used blades are to be
thrown away in a sealed container.

11. Radios, stereos, CD players, are permitted in the studio only when it does not disturb the conduct of class or individuals working.  Please be
discrete and respectful.  The use of headphones during studio time will be permitted at my discretion.

12. Please help save energy by turning the lights out in studio and the rest room if you are the last to leave.

13. Alcohol of any kind is not permitted on University property.

14. Please recycle all aluminum soft drink cans.  Deposit them in receptacles provided in the corridors.

15. The quality of the environment in which we all work is only as good as each of us makes it.  As students in architecture, your goal should be
to create better environments and respect existing environments.  Please begin now.  Should you encounter anyone causing damage or
defacement to your learning environment, you are strongly encouraged to call such behavior to a member of the faculty or administration.

16. Bicycles are not permitted anywhere indoors in University buildings.


 Plus (+) and minus (-) grades will be used in this course.

A (Excellent)

Student's work is of exceptional quality and the solutions to problems show a depth of the problem. Project is fully developed and presented well
both orally and graphically. Student has developed a strong and appropriate concept which clearly enhances the overall solution.  The full
potential of the problem has been realized and demonstrated.

B  (Good)

Student's work shows above average understanding and clear potential.  All program requirements are fulfilled and clearly and concisely

C  (Average)

Student's work meets minimum objectives of the course and solves major problem requirements.  Work shows normal understanding.  Quality of
project as well as the development of knowledge and skills is average.

D  (Poor)

Student's work shows limited understanding and/or effort.  Minimum problem requirements have not been met.  Quality of project or performance
as well as development of knowledge and skills is below average.

F  (Failure)

Student's work is unresolved, incomplete and/or unclear.  Minimum course objectives or project requirements are not met, and student's work
shows lack of understanding and/or effort.  Quality of project or performance is not acceptable.

Ex:  (Excused)

Can be requested by graduate students for unusual circumstances.


All work is assumed to be that of the student presenting the project.  Work done by others must be properly credited and documented to the
faculty reviewers.  Failure to do so will be regarded as plagiarism and the student will be disciplined according to the "Code on Policies and
Regulations Applying to All Students."


All students are strongly encouraged to research precedents, and to be influenced by master architects.  This is good scholarship.  Literature
searches are routine prerequisites to academic research published in scholarly publications.  The scholar cites all authors surveyed in the
bibliography thus avoiding any claim ofplagiarism.  To maintain your intellectual integrity, you should also cite your source(s).


(or how to create the illusion of being complete)

 Q. When are we ever really finished with a project?
 A. When time is up.

Perhaps we are never really finished with a project.  We could keep improving it's design and presentation indefinitely.  As professionals, we
recognize this as a fact and we just keep getting better at creating the illusion of being complete.   What can you do to create that illusion?

What is obviously incomplete?

Lots of line work and notes on the first board, outline drawings on middle and last boards, pasted or pinned up scraps of unfinished drawings on
dissimilar sheets of paper in lieu of planned final boards.

What is apparently complete?

Uniform development of all boards.  Thoughtful arrangement of images to convey a complete "Story Line" from start to finish ("once upon a time"
to "and they lived happily ever after") from general to specific.

How can you appear complete?


If you normally "don't have time" to put on finishing touches (titles, scale, orientation, people, vegetation) put that on stuff on first.


     Outline all drawings, all boards, including all title blocks.
     Bring all images on all boards up to 10% completion, then 25%, 50%, etc. Don't
     attempt to finish one drawing or one board before going on to the next.
     Letter all boards
     Render/poche all boards.
     Color all boards

Do all of this in a sequence that if you had to leave out coloring all boards, or even rendering and poche on all boards, you could still give the
illusion of being complete. Who's to know what you intended to do unless you make that evident by doing it on the first board, and omitting it on
the last board.  In other words:  What can you leave out without penalty?


A picture's worth a thousand words - a model's worth a thousand pictures. Models show three dimensional qualities best; drawings show details
best. Create a graphic unity from drawings to models.  Design your boards to tell the story line from general to specific, from introductionto
conclusion.  Use your boards as visual note cards to guide you in a logical oral presentation from your concept to your detailed proposal.  End
with a "gee whiz"image (intended to produce a standing ovation.)


BE PREPARED  with a complete graphic presentation and a rehearsed oral. Nothing will give you greater confidence.  Explain by showing.  The
best answer you can give on a review is to say (and show) "it's right here (on this drawing)."

BE BRIEF.  A complete graphic presentation will explain itself.  Indeed when you send your project to a competition you cannot go with it to
explain what to anybody.  Add as little texts as necessary. (See next section, below)

BE CLEAR.  State your concept first, what you are intending to do, and then how you have done it.

BE LOGICAL.  Start with general-progress to specific.

BE POSITIVE.  Never apologize,  If YOU don't believe in your project, who else  will?

BE POLITE.  Listen for helpful comments from guest reviewers.  Reserve your right to disagree, but don't engage in prolonged argument.  DO
explain when they do not understand.  Don't worry about differences in opinion.

BE PROFESSIONAL in your appearance and comportment.

BE RESTED and well nourished.  Deprivation impairs learning

BE RELAXED.  A hundred years from now, what difference will it make?

BE YOURSELF.  Don't fake an answer-it's o.k. to say "I don't know."



Strike three.
Get you hand off my knee.
You're over drawn.
Your horse won.
You have the account.
Don't Walk.
Basic events require simple language.
Idiosyncratically euphuistic eccentricities are the promulgators of triturable obfuscation.
What did you do last night?
Enter into a meaningful romantic involvement
or fall in love?
What did you have for breakfast this morning?
The upper part of a hog's hind leg with two oval bodies encased in a shell laid by a female bird
ham and eggs?
David Belasco, the great American theatrical producer, once said,

"If you can't write your idea on the back of my calling card, you don't have a clear idea."

-borrowed from
Professor James P. Warfield

(original source: Richard Kerr, Wall Street Journal, February 1979, according to e-mail from Timothy Baehr, 22 Sep 00)


What is a good study?

One that
 explores many options and keeps options open
 asks many "what if" questions
 seeks alternatives
 questions assumptions
 questions the status quo
 considers the improbable as well as the probable
 considers what Fay Jones calls "operative opposites"
 studies issues holistically, comprehensively
 suggests details (parts) which illustrates the whole
 is communicated informally in what Carme Pinos calls "ugly drawings"
 or what Thom Mayne calls "skrodels" (sketch models)
 takes risks and "boldly goes where no one's gone before"
 and/or reinterprets regional or local vernacular

A good preliminary study is NOT

 incapable of revision (without revision there is no design).

Design is a process of discovery through intense effort and continuous experiment.  In the study and practice of architecture you've really got to
love the process.  The "chase" is nearly as important as the "catch."  Let us join the chase together and all relish the process.


These are some of the issues we will be addressing in studio this semester on all of the projects.

Traditional Neighborhood Design

From Langdon’s A Better Place to Live,

Five Principles of Neighborhood Design (p. 217):

1.  Identifiable Neighborhood Centers & Edges
2.  mile radius, five minute walk.  (Calthorpe: ten minute walk).
3.  Mixed use, including mixed housing types.
4.  Network of Interconnecting Streets (typically grid).
5.  Appropriately Located “Civic” Buildings (probably associated w/TOD).

Suburban Town Center Development Principles (p. 220):

1.  Offices, Retail, Mixed-use near center (or TOD @ light rail).
2.  Dense New Housing, 25 DUs/A  3-4 stories, apartments above stores.
3.  Pedestrian Friendly Circulation: narrow streets, wider walks, awings, arcades, entries front streets and at back
4.  Small Landscaped Pockets of Parking Behind Stores, No Large Visible Parking Lots at Street Edges.
5.  Parks, Open Space with Links to Restaurants, Galleries, etc.
6.  Public Transportation
Elements for Better Communities (p. 236.):

1.  Generously Connected Network of Streets and Walks.
2.  Streets are Public Spaces Enclosed by Building Fronts and Vegetation
3.  Houses with Porches, Entrances Face Street.
4.  Garages at Rear
5.  Mixed Size, Price, Types of Housing (Mixed Ages and Incomes).
6.  Pedestrian Access to Parks, Stores, Services, Public Gathering Spaces.

Fifteen Ways to Fix the Suburbs

(from Newsweek, May 15, 1995.)

1.  Give up big lawns
2.  Bring back the corner store
3.  Make the streets skinny (26’)
4.  Drop the Cul-de-sac
5.  Draw boundaries for urban growth
6.  Hide the garage
7.  Plant trees curbside
8.  Mix housing types
9.  Put new life into old malls
10.  Plan for mass transit
11.  Link work to home
12.  Make a Town Center
13.  Shrink parking lots
14.  Turn down the (intensity of street) lights
15.  Think green

Campus Address and Phone:

Robert I. Selby, AIA
Associate Professor of Architecture
School of Architecture University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
322 Temple Hoyne Buell Hall,  MC 621
611 Taft Drive
Champaign, IL 61820-6921
t: 217-244-6514
f: 217-244-2900