[ Research ]
By Cassandra Ecker
Community Involvement and Support
East Riverfront Station
Current Station Area Plans
The coming of light rail to East St. Louis, Illinois is not only a major investment in the St. Louis Region’s transportation network, it is an investment opportunity in neighborhoods like Emerson Park. The MetroLink Station in Emerson Park will be a major force in the future of the neighborhood as a catalyst for development around the station which can boost transit ridership as well as benefit the community. Understanding the process of development, and how to use the transit investment to the neighborhood’s greatest advantage, is essential for the Emerson Park Development Corporation (EPDC) and the residents of Emerson Park to play an active role in the station area development.
Economic Development at the Emerson Park MetroLink Station provides an overview of the transit-oriented development concept including elements of successful station area development and how development has occurred at other stations. Using examples and lessons learned for other transit-oriented development projects, Economic Development at the Emerson Park MetroLink Station outlines recommendations to assist EPDC in its efforts to encourage development as well as community involvement. To capitalize on the influx of transit riders as well as benefit the community aesthetically and economically, the recommendations within include:
Though overcoming the obstacles to development in East St. Louis, Illinois is a difficult task, collaboration with key players in the region such as Bi-State Development Agency, and St. Clair County Transit District and local organizations such as the City of East St. Louis, Olivette Park, Hall Park, and Washington Park can provide an avenue for EPDC to increase the chance of community and transit friendly development in Emerson Park.
In the St. Louis, Missouri region, the new MetroLink light rail system has been the center of attention for several neighborhoods in the corridor. The MetroLink neighborhoods, like neighborhoods around the country have been able to increase development and development potential near rail stations. The extension of the light rail line into St. Clair County, Illinois links neighborhoods underserved by transit to jobs, goods, services, and other regional amenities.
The expansion of the MetroLink into East St. Louis is a chance for real change, especially around the stations. The first station of the MetroLink Extension is located north of Interstate 64 at 15th Street and Bowman Avenue in East St. Louis, Illinois in the Emerson Park neighborhood. The residents of Emerson Park, East St. Louis have the opportunity to participate in the transformation of their neighborhood with the new MetroLink station as the catalyst for commercial development.
According to a review of transit and regional economic growth literature, the investment of public transit alone does not induce economic growth through private investment. Development which would, most likely, have happened anyway will be encouraged to locate around transit to take advantage of decreased costs or other amenities due to the transit or the incentives provided by government to locate near transit. For the Emerson Park neighborhood, this is the good news. For the City of East St. Louis, focusing new development efforts on the MetroLink stations will produce faster positive results than disbursement of development across the city. As a primary park and ride station on the MetroLink Extension line, residents of Emerson Park should not only be prepared for development, but also understand the process of integrating it with the neighborhood and defining local and regional government’s role in development.
Emerson Park Development Corporation
Established in 1985, the Emerson Park Development Corporation (EPDC) brought together residents in order to improve the quality of life in the Emerson Park neighborhood of East St. Louis, Illinois. The EPDC uses tools of community organization and planning to assist residents achieve neighborhood objectives such as the demolition of derelict structures, housing rehabilitation, new affordable housing construction, infrastructure improvement, job training, neighborhood watch, and economic development.
Regarded by city-wide community leaders as one of the strongest community organizations in East St. Louis, EPDC has a committed executive board of residents and a full-time executive director, Vickie Forby. EPDC has made and continues to make a tremendous difference in the quality of life and the cohesiveness of the neighborhood. Though the issues with which the EPDC deals are diverse, the focus of the organization has been neighborhood improvement through housing rehabilitation and development. The EPDC has been instrumental in organizing residents around neighborhood issues and has been a leader in the location of the new Emerson Park MetroLink Station.
Emerson Park MetroLink Station
The new MetroLink Station is a major capital investment in Emerson Park and the region. It is an opportunity for Emerson Park to encourage additional investment in development in the neighborhood, focusing on physical access and market potential the station provides.
Exhibit 1 (page 7) shows the Emerson Park Neighborhood’s location in the St. Louis Metropolitan Region. This region is served by multiple governmental entities which have direct interest with the success of the MetroLink. Regional organizations involved in the MetroLink Extension corridor include Bi-State Development Agency (BSDA), East-West Gateway Coordinating Council (EWGCC), and St. Clair County (Illinois) Transit District (SCCTD).
The report is designed for use by the Emerson Park Development Corporation (EPDC) and residents to better understand the process of transit-oriented station area development and to outline steps for capitalizing on the opportunities created by the MetroLink Station. It focuses on station area attributes and needs as well as resources for assistance, and marketing options for the further enhancement of the station area and the neighborhood. In the process, this report outlines the progression of the MetroLink into Emerson Park, elements of station area development, and how residents can be involved in commercial development directly and indirectly. It should also show how Emerson Park can help create jobs for East St. Louis residents and be prepared for the types of commercial activities which will take place around their station. This report will serve as a starting point for greater citizen involvement and serve as a basis for further study and action of station area development in Emerson Park.
Emerson Park is in the process of updating its Neighborhood Plan. This process is being coordinated through the University of Illinois Department of Urban and Regional Planning Community Development Workshop and the East St. Louis Action Research Project (ESLARP) Neighborhood Technical Assistance Center (NTAC). While the information and recommendations presented in this report may coincide with the Neighborhood Plan, this report will focus on the MetroLink station area and the economic development opportunities focused on transit.
Exhibit 1 page 7
It makes sense to build near transit for economic, environmental, and social reasons. As one of the primary factors that drives urbanization, clustered development around transit centers can create denser living areas which help boost retail sales and land values, as well as decreasing pollution and traffic congestion by decreasing dependency on automobiles, and create a center for community activity. The concentration of development associated with transit can also focus efforts to maintain and improve infrastructure. In this way, transit is an "economic development tool used for optimizing desired station area development".
For commuters who have little time for anything but work, shopping needs to be convenient. Station area businesses with good access, visibility, and quality services can also benefit from the flows of transit users while creating an active atmosphere to add to the vitality of the neighborhood. Though services such as ATM machines, coffee, and newspaper stands are well known as commuter conveniences, services such as dry cleaners, copy shops, and day care are made more convenient by combining them with transit into one trip. "Retail sales near transit stations are often reported to (be) 5 to 10 percent higher per square foot than in other locations." Another positive effect of light rail is the certainty that the station is likely to remain at the given location, unlike bus route and stops. This is important to developers and retail operators whose projects are focused or dependent on transit.
Economic Development around light rail stations in other cities
Studies of rail effects on land use and development in U.S. cities such as San Francisco, CA, Washington, DC, and Portland, OR have shown that although rail does influence patterns of development, rail alone does not spur development. Factors other than transit must be present in order to induce development. Favorable local government policies such as zoning and public incentive programs make station area development more attractive in addition to strong local real estate market and general economic conditions.
Private sector incentives used in other U.S. cities include: risk sharing, tax exemption, special capital improvements, tax increment financing, equity participation, supplementary land acquisition with write down, loans and guarantees, density incentives, and direct public involvement. Incentives to the private sector are especially important in weak market conditions. Successful station area developments in other cities have taken into account current and anticipated market conditions, community objectives, as well as physical site development features in combination with proactive land use policies, incentives and public-private partnerships.
In the Fruitvale District of Oakland, California, a distressed area that has been largely ignored by developers and where projects have been proposed without consulting the public, residents and merchants led a collaborative planning project around the Bay Area Rapid Transit Station organized through the Spanish Speaking Unity Council. Their efforts resulted in a transit village concept to increase interaction between transit riders and the neighborhood commercial district through design and development on transit agency owned property.
Transit oriented development , or TOD, is real-estate development influenced by and supportive of transit service, and is responsive to the market created by transit riders. Transit oriented development combines both design principles and policy principles and is as much a land use planning tool as it is a development tool. Sometimes referred to as transit supportive development, TOD makes a connection between land use and transportation and creates a more efficient land use scheme as it enhances transit ridership.
Elements of TOD
Common elements of TOD include good pedestrian access, moderate to high-density housing, and retail businesses and services near the transit station often in a mixed used setting. The design principles for successful TOD focus on pedestrian access to both the transit stop and the uses around the station within an individual community or neighborhood. The station then becomes a convenient destination, combining a trip to the transit stop with other uses. Though the standard used in determining the walkable space defining a station area is a five to ten minute walk (quarter to half-mile radius), there is no size definition of a TOD: it can be anything from one building to several blocks of organized development.
The elements of TOD illustrate a relationship between transit and development and the potential for each type of project to influence the other. The combination of the two produces benefits not only for the public, but also for the local government and the transit authority. Making mixed use, one-stop shopping, working, and living centers near transit stations makes the station area a destination for multiple uses. While mixing uses promotes multi-task trips, it also generates off-peak transit demand and can stimulate the local economy of business districts. Encouraging higher land use densities around transit stations is not only land efficient and supportive of transit, it also increases the efficiency of public infrastructure investment.
The design of TOD to be compact and walkable does more than create a sense of community, it creates a sense of business. Shopping opportunities are enhanced when they are visible from the path of the consumer. Facing retail towards transit captures the commuter market as the commuters change modes from rail to pedestrian to auto. More consumers in the area increases tax revenues (including sales and property) which, in turn, can increase public investment in the area. This spurs increased desirability of the area which leads to higher transit ridership. The success of the TOD retail hinges on one of the primary design elements of TOD: pedestrian access.
Transit oriented development is also supported by local government regulations such as mixed use zoning and design standards which encourage the private market to add social goals into the transit station areas. TOD is not a new concept, but rather a return to urban development techniques from the suburban, auto-oriented developments of today.
Successful Station Area Development
Understanding how development is achieved is as important as understanding how to focus it on transit. Consideration of the impacts and opportunities of transit early in land-use or capital project planning with sensitivity to timing constraints of publicly funded projects is essential, but successful station area development also requires the communication and coordination of a number of jurisdictions and public agencies (including city, regional and transit agencies) as well as developers. Incentives to investors to build need not always be in the form of funding: supportive local government policies, community support, and market conditions also play important roles. Encouraging developers and other investors in a community also takes developable land, good marketing, and powerful leadership.
Local government must be supportive through proactive development policies which encourage development such as cooperative staff, favorable zoning, and density permits. Joint development (public-private partnerships) require close collaboration between the transit agency, local governments, and private developers, and can be instrumental in providing the incentive to build. "No matter what the market considerations, developers and retailers agree that the number one requirement for downtown retail project feasibility is enthusiastic and aggressive support from the local government and civic groups". The same can be applied to transit oriented development. Any policies focused on transit oriented development must be in addition to favorable practices of the city in general. Favorable transit oriented development policies will not abate difficult approval processes and delayed inspections which hinder development.
Community Involvement and Support
Beyond physical aspects of successful TOD, is the role of the community and users of the site. Support from the community must be part of the initial siting of the station as well as the land use around it. The involvement of residents and commuters in the process of creating TOD is critical to the success of the station area developments. Sense of ownership of the station area is important to engaging the current residents in future developments.
The market conditions for the site and general economic conditions play significant roles successful station area development. Transit will benefit the site and can be used as an incentive over non-transit places, but if there is no market for the development, transit or not, economic development efforts will be encumbered. "Station areas located in blighted areas may face weak market demand that precludes development opportunities in the immediate future."
The most basic need for development is land. Without the availability of sufficiently sized parcels (or air rights) on which to build, there will be no development. Land availability and land assembly is crucial to the proliferation of development near transit stations. Local government and the transit agency can play a key role in acquiring and assembling parcels of land for redevelopment.
Marketing the site for development requires an understanding of what a developer seeks in building a project: a profit. Lowering development costs can take many forms. Providing clear honest information, cooperative flexible staff and policies as well as direct financial incentives can translate into lower development costs. Providing this information up front and helping the developer understand the nature of the community will make the process easier for him or her, reducing time and money spent on construction activities.
Marketing the site to consumers is often conducted through the transit agency in an effort to promote transit ridership. Through community outreach and other public relations efforts, transit agencies also team with developers to promote the transit-oriented developments.
The use of light-rail transit is expanding throughout the country. Cities like St. Louis, Missouri have embraced light-rail and transit oriented development as a way to create more livable cities while promoting efficiency. The MetroLink light rail system in the St. Louis region, together with coordinated feeder bus service, has augmented (re)development projects and general public awareness of regional issues.
Discussion of transit solutions to the changes in St. Louis regional population distribution began in the mid-1980s. Undertaken by the East West Gateway Coordinating Council (EWGCC), the St. Louis regional MPO, the transit studies which followed evaluated alternatives for improved transit in the region including both busway and light rail transit. The St. Louis region, which encompasses two states, eight counties, and 188 municipalities experienced declines in central city population, but overall regional growth (primarily in Missouri). With the population moving out to the suburban ring, increasing dependence on automobile and traffic congestion, and decreasing air quality became major concerns. Transportation improvements in areas of slow to no growth with high transit dependent populations were studied to help achieve the regional goal of economic growth in the City of St. Louis and Illinois.
Opened in 1993, the first St. Louis MetroLink corridor links downtown East St. Louis to Lambert International Airport through the City and County of St. Louis, Missouri. The 18.5 miles of track and 18 stations serve major regional destinations including the Casino Queen Riverboat, Laclede’s Landing, the Gateway Arch, Busch Stadium, Union Station, and the University of Missouri. The award-winning transit system is one of the few light rail projects in the United States which opened on time, within budget, and exceeded ridership projections. Factors in the success of the MetroLink include asset-based financing through the use of existing regional infrastructure and bolstered Congressional support through the inclusion of stations in East St. Louis.
Station Area Planning and Development
As the owner and operator of the regional transit system in St. Louis, Bi-State Development Agency (BSDA) is authorized to plan, coordinate and implement development projects and is at the forefront of the development efforts around currently operating light rail stations. Through the efforts of BSDA, station area profiles and development opportunities have been identified for each existing station and stations of the Phase I MetroLink Extension. The St. Clair County Transit District (SCCTD) has also been active in promoting station area development in Illinois through the publication of brochures for the development community.
Of the 18 MetroLink stations in operation, there are three station areas which are most similar to MetroLink Extension Station 2 (Emerson Park) in terms of past population declines, disinvestment, and opportunities for redevelopment and are considered to be the most challenged in terms of attracting new investment. The stations, which are currently open along the MetroLink line, are Wellston, Delmar, and East Riverfront (East St. Louis). In 1995, these three stations were the focus of an Urban Land Institute (ULI) Advisory Services panel study as part of the Inner-City Community Building Program. The panel investigated and made recommendations for each station area with regard to market potential, planning and design, development strategies, and implementation. Through the efforts of the panel, BSDA and the station area jurisdictions were able to expand their visions for the station areas and the community.
These three stations have also been the focus of many reports and articles about station area development in the St. Louis region. BSDA has been able to coordinate efforts with the stations’ communities and create viable station area development with varying degrees of success.
The Wellston Station is located in St. Louis County, Missouri and is the 13th station of the existing westbound MetroLink light rail line. Though physical decline and environmental degradation are the legacy of the Wellston Station area’s industrial past, the station area has seen recent improvements. Redevelopment projects prior to the ULI study include the Cornerstone Partnership’s industrial technical training center and the St. Louis County Police and Fire Training Center.
The ULI panel’s recommendation focused on building from Wellston’s industrial past through the creation of a new center for business, industry, and employment in the station area. The concept of the Wellston Technology Park is to serve as a center for technology and education as well as support for retail space and residential infill development. Though the advisory panel acknowledged poor infrastructure and inadequate site size as barriers to the project, federal transportation funds (providing half the funding need to overcome the problems) had already been identified.
With a vision for the area in place, the St. Louis County Economic Council and the City of Wellston began to form a not-for-profit urban redevelopment corporation, Wellston Technology Park, Inc., in order to capture funding benefits. In addition to zero land costs, the use of tax increment bonds was planned to finance infrastructure improvements. The first phase of the Wellston Technology Park includes the development of the Plymouth Industrial Park with strong linkages to the MetroLink. Funding for the project will come from local instruments and sources including tax increment bonds, community development financial institution funds, and economic council matching grants combined with state funds for infrastructure and site improvements. The Wellston Technology Park project has also attracted the attention of possible technology center anchors such as Moog Automotive and ViJon (healthcare and beauty product manufacturer).
BSDA and EWGCC obtained additional funding through the FTA Livable Communities Initiative for the Wellston Station area. Planned improvements to support the vocational training center and business incubator include a station center to enhance mobility, provide child care services, and a police substation as well as general site improvements.
The Delmar Station is located in the City of St. Louis, Missouri and is the 12th station of the existing westbound MetroLink light rail line. Though the area has experienced population declines in the past, redevelopment efforts include the revitalization of nearby University City residential and commercial activities with pedestrian access. Housing features of neighborhoods northeast and south of the station, while deteriorated, illustrate what neotraditional neighborhood planners across the country are trying to recreate.
Development concepts in the Delmar Station area focused on creating a mixed use center with the reuse of the Wabash Railway Station as the commercial centerpiece. According to the ULI panel, the former Wabash Railway Station’s strategic access to the MetroLink station would be a convenient location for transit oriented retail activities. Combined with 80,000 additional square feet of retail space as well as moderate density residential uses on Delmar Boulevard, the station area development would maintain Delmar Boulevard and add to the clarity of the community. The ULI panel estimated public costs at approximately $6 to $7 million dollars to be funded through a variety of public sources including the expansion of the enterprise zone. The panel also recommended the City of St. Louis assemble land, develop development standards including a streetscape program, and form a partnership with BSDA and University City.
Since the ULI Advisory Services Panel report, BSDA has added community-based public art as well as parking for the enhancement of the Delmar Station. In 1997, the Delmar Wabash Link Action Plan process began through the collaborative efforts of BSDA, the City of St. Louis, University City, the Skinker-DeBaliviere Community Council, and neighborhood and local businesses. To revitalize and integrate Delmar Boulevard and Station, community groups, residents, and transit riders were also engaged in the discussion of retail and station area development opportunities. The result of the action plan included recommendations for connections between the MetroLink station and Delmar Loop, encouragement of development, and area appearance improvements through a pedestrian and transit plaza, streetscape improvements, and traffic routing. Funding for the projects will come from a variety of state and federal sources.
East Riverfront Station
The East Riverfront Station is located in downtown East St. Louis, Illinois and is the first station of the existing westbound MetroLink light rail line. Though revitalization efforts in downtown East St. Louis have been slow, the station provides access to the Casino Queen Riverboat and park and ride facilities for Illinois commuters. The station has also provided impetus for the structural improvement of both the Eads and Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Bridges.
For the City of East St. Louis, economic development is desperately needed. The ULI panel focused their attention on the existing gaming riverboat with recommendations for extensive visitor, retail, and entertainment facilities for the region including almost 250,000 square feet of retail and over 300 hotel rooms. The development would be complemented by the Jefferson National Extension Memorial Park, further linking the cities of St. Louis and East St. Louis. The scale of the proposed developments warrant a comprehensive, strategic plan for the economic development of the riverfront to be undertaken by the City of East St. Louis and cosponsored by BSDA. Despite the number of barriers to the development process in East St. Louis, the panel held optimistic views for development opportunities.
In order to secure funding for the large scale projects, the cities of St. Louis and East St. Louis will be applying for federal Empowerment Zone status which would assist the development of the East Riverfront. Though later reports of efforts around the East Riverfront Station indicate progress, it is difficult to ascertain the degree of success. The city services of East St. Louis, though improving, are still stretched. Regional cooperation is necessary to accelerate the advancement of this station into the vision to which the panel and BDSA prescribes and visible changes are slow in coming.
Originally opened with 150 parking spaces, 600 more spaces were added to meet the demand of commuters. Though the ridership success BSDA has found with this station so far has been primarily a function of commuters from Illinois, future development near the station will enhance event and weekend ridership as well. Development efforts around this station will be difficult to attribute solely to the transit station. The combination of the transit station with the success of the Casino Queen increase the attractiveness of this site beyond what the station can provide alone. Current projects on the East Riverfront include a 170-space RV park and a new Casino Queen Hotel and entertainment center.
The first station of the MetroLink St. Clair County Extension, the third station in Illinois, will be built in the Emerson Park Neighborhood of the city of East St. Louis at 15th Street between Baugh Avenue and Bowman Street. The changes made in the alignment of the locally preferred alternative (LPA) from the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) to the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) from the East Riverfront Station to Station 2 as well as the location of this station were the direct result of concerns expressed by the EPDC to the City of East St. Louis, Missouri. EPDC took the initiative to propose a solution which was feasible as well as beneficial to both the residents and the transit agency. Through the construction of a transit testimony regarding the MetroLink Extension in East St. Louis, the EPDC voiced its concerns over the alignment of the extension, the placement of the station, and the need for attention to be given to the opportunities which transit could provide for East St. Louis residents.
MetroLink St. Clair County Extension
The St. Clair County Corridor, from East St. Louis east to Scott AFB, was designated as the second priority corridor for major transit investment in the 1984 study behind the St. Louis to Lambert International Airport Corridor. The early 1990s brought transit attention back to the eastern portion of the metropolitan area, as the western light rail corridor prepared to open. After additional alternative analysis in 1991, the St. Clair County Corridor was selected as the priority corridor for major transit investment. As the MetroLink opened in St. Louis in 1993, the Illinois residents of the metropolitan area showed their support for the MetroLink Extension with an increase in St. Clair County sales tax to fund construction and operation.
Six alternatives were considered in the MetroLink Extension DEIS: no-action, Transportation Systems Management (TSM), I-64 and CSXT busway, and I-64 and CSXT light rail options. Both LRT options showed the highest value for the least cost and similar impacts on the existing environment. The CSXT alignment was chosen over the I-64 option as the LPA in February 1994 by the EWGCC’s Board of Directors. The abandoned CSXT railroad right-of-way serves the St. Clair County seat of Belleville, Illinois, and provides service to areas in the county of higher density, lower income, and slower growth.
The stations identified in the DEIS of March 1995 as part of the initial LPA were nearly all modified or deleted from the line by the time the FEIS was issued in August 1996. Alternative 6, as the LPA of the DEIS, was opposed by residents due to its infringement on cultural assets of the community. The alignment, with Station 2 located at 7th Street and St. Clair Avenue, followed I-64 on the south side of the interstate disrupting viable parcels of occupied land, including the site of the Katherine Dunham Museum. Several streets would have been closed off to accommodate the rail line, and there was no suggestion for the station’s integration into the neighborhood.
The realignment of the MetroLink and Station 2 was largely due to the intervention of the EPDC. It was clear to the residents of Emerson Park that the EWGCC alignment study had focused on access for commuters, and not on the significant impacts to East St. Louis. The EPDC suggested an alignment which would not only be less costly, less disruptive, and safer, but also opened opportunities for redevelopment in a neighborhood with more vacant land and potential for a park and ride station. In the FEIS, reasons for moving the station location and the selection of the site of the new station include resident support, better access for auto and bus traffic, and opportunity for enhanced facilities such as the park and ride. Exhibit 2 (page 19) shows the FEIS LPA alignment of the MetroLink Extension from downtown East St. Louis to Belleville Area College.
The EWGCC was able to secure commitments from the jurisdictions affected by the MetroLink Extension to provide improvements for the station areas. The City of East St. Louis will close several streets and improve road access at Station 2 (Emerson Park) as well as provide commercial infrastructure for on site commercial pads at Station 2 and 4 (Washington Park as part of the State Enterprise Zone) at an estimated cost of $2.84 million.
Phase I of the MetroLink Extension, from the existing 5th and Missouri Station in East St. Louis to Belleville Area College, broke ground in March 1998 and is scheduled to open in 2001. The cost for the MetroLink Extension is estimated at $350 million. The expected ridership for the MetroLink Extension is expected to reach over 10,000 by 2010. The Emerson Park station will have a park and ride facility providing almost 900 parking spaces and an estimated 2010 ridership of over 3,000 people per day (nearly one-third of the projected ridership for the entire MetroLink Extension). Unlike the East Riverfront and 5th and Missouri (downtown East St. Louis) stations, the Emerson Park Station is located in a primarily residential neighborhood.
Emerson Park Community
The Emerson Park neighborhood is located East St. Louis near the intersection of Interstate highway 55/70 and Interstate Highway 64 (see Exhibit 1, page 3) . The 55 blocks of Emerson Park are bounded by transportation rights-of way including interstate and rail lines. Once inhabited by Native Americans, and later by European immigrants, the area is now home to an predominately African-American community with a strong sense of history and pride. At the center of the neighborhood is the Lessie Bates Davis House which holds many neighborhood services ranging from day care to the office of the EPDC. Exhibit 3 (page 20) shows the location of Emerson Park’s Neighborhood landmarks as they relate to the future site of the MetroLink Station. Nearly all of the major landmarks identified by residents are within one-half mile of the MetroLink Station site.
Exhibit 2 page 19
Exhibit 3 page 20
The primary station area is defined as the 15+ blocks in Emerson Park which are within the walking distance of one-quarter mile of the transit station. The secondary station area is composed of parcels within one-half mile of the transit station. Parcels south of I-64 are part of the Olivette Park Neighborhood in East St. Louis. The study area for this report does not include parcels south of I-64.
Current Station Area Plans
Land Use Concept Plan
Bi-State Development Agency and St. Clair County Transit District hired a consultant to construct conceptual plans for the station areas in conjunction with the MetroLink extension. The concept plan is intended to supplement a Livable Communities Grant Application through BSDA and SCCTD to the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). The concept is also intended to guide future development.
The Master Plan Final Design concept for the Emerson Park Station, as shown in Exhibit 4 (page 22) shows auto-oriented land uses, including almost 900 parking spaces, south of
Bowman Avenue, surrounding the transit station from three sides. Retail uses are planned for the area include two blocks set away from the station in addition to the commercial pad on the transit site. No known market study was conducted in conjunction with this land use plan to determine appropriate land allocation for each type of use.
East St. Louis 20/20: A Strategic Vision for Change for the Community’s Future
Published in 1994 as the strategic plan phase of a Federal Empowerment Zone application, the East St. Louis 20/20 outlines specific needs, opportunities, and goals for the city, including discussion of economic and community development priorities. The plan identifies the construction of a strip commercial center at all light rail stations, excluding the riverfront station, as a possible project to be implemented through the city. Though $2 million is identified as an amount available from Southwest Illinois Development Authority (SWIDA) and $3 million was to be expected from EZ/EC funding, $9 million of the project was expected to come from private, unidentified sources. The site for the commercial strip development (transit agency or city/county property) is not indicated in the plan. Though the Federal Empowerment Zone Application was unsuccessful, the plan shows that the City of East St. Louis is aware that commercial aspects of transit stations need to be addressed.
Exhibit 4 page 22
Infrastructure Assessment and Plan
Infrastructure is frequently cited as an inducement to development. The East St. Louis Enterprise Community Infrastructure Plan of October 1997 recognizes the present conditions of the city’s infrastructure, cites sources of funding for the improvements , and makes recommendations for improvements including a construction schedule. In Emerson Park, the Stage I construction schedule for proposed roadway improvements focus on streets nearest the MetroLink station. As of January 1998, funding had not yet been secured to begin any roadway improvements, though funding is being sought by the CDBG Operations Corporation Enterprise Community Office of East St. Louis from: CDBG, SWIDA, Empowerment Zone (HUD) grant, Community improvement funds from the Casino Queen, ISTEA Surface Transportation Program, DCCA 50/50 Economic Development.
Table 1: Proposed Roadway Improvements
Source: The East St. Louis Enterprise Community Infrastructure Plan, October 1997
A land use survey was conducted in Fall 1997 by the University of Illinois East St. Louis Action Research Project. Exhibit 5 (page 24) is designed to show the vacant parcels available within the designated station area. This demonstrates the available land for development, but also, the uses which currently exist adjacent to vacant parcels.
Tax assessors information from 1996 was used to generate Exhibit 6 (page 25) depicting the nature of parcel ownership around the station. The map shows the distribution of public/private land ownership and availability of land to be assembled for use as a commercial center. Public ownership of land is separated into three categories: parcels owned by the City of East St. Louis, parcels held in trusteeship by St. Clair County, and parcels owned by the East St. Louis Housing Authority. Parcels designated as owned in St. Clair County Trustee have been taken by the county due to the owner’s failure to pay property taxes and will be available for purchase through county auction.
Exhibit 5 page 24 Exhibit 6 page 25 Population
Exhibit 5 page 24
Exhibit 6 page 25
The new MetroLink station in Emerson Park is located at the edge of the neighborhood and will serve residents beyond the boundaries of the neighborhood. The demographic characteristics of the population, as shown below, are based on the population within an area within one-half mile radius of the station location (a five to ten minute walk from the station). As the demographic profile of the station area, the figures in Table 2 include both Emerson Park and portions of Olivette Park Neighborhood (south of I-64) residents.
Table 2: Station 2 Demographic Characteristics
Source: 1990 U.S. Census and East-West Gateway Coordinating Council as
referenced in BSDA St. Clair County MetroLink Extension Station Area Profile,
Compared to the City of East St. Louis and St. Clair County as shown in Table 3, Station 2 residents living within a half-mile radius of the station are more likely to rent their homes and be dependent on transit.
Table 3: City and County Demographics
Source: 1990 U.S. Census and University of Illinois Department of Urban and Regional Planning
Community Development Workshop Emerson Park Neighborhood Revitalization Plan (DRAFT)
Based on a survey conducted through the UIUC Department of Urban and Regional Planning Community Development Workshop, Table 4 shows the where Emerson Park residents shop for consumer goods and services. While most of these services are offered in East St. Louis, a high percentage of respondents will go outside the city to spend their consumer dollars. Table 4 also illustrates that very few quality services are offered within the neighborhood itself.
Table 4: Resident Expenditure Patterns*
Source: University of Illinois Department of Urban and Regional Planning Community Development Workshop
Emerson Park Neighborhood Revitalization Plan (DRAFT) Spring 1998
*Percentages are based on number of respondents who answered each question. Missing values were not counted.
Convenience goods and services such as grocery stores, pharmacies, gas stations have an average trade area radius of 5 to 10 blocks (approximately 1 mile). The information presented above indicates that residents of Emerson Park are traveling beyond the standard trade areas for these services. The consequences of the lack of neighborhood goods and services include increased transport costs for residents and decreased tax revenues for the City of East St. Louis.
Exhibit 7 (page 28) shows the zoning of parcels in Emerson Park as of 1978. Zoning for the city has not been updated regularly and has taken on a scattered pattern. The neighborhood is zoned primarily for single-family residential with other zones dispersed throughout the single family residential area. Nearly all of the neighborhood commercial areas are outside the one-quarter mile distance from the MetroLink Station site, with the majority of neighborhood commercial zoning located along 9th Street (entrance to neighborhood from I-64).
Exhibit 7 page 28
Recent and planned housing developments in the Emerson Park Neighborhood have been further encouraged by the eminent MetroLink Station. EPDC has recently constructed four new single-family homes and has plans to build two additional single family homes over the summer of 1998. In addition to the single family developments by EPDC, 66 new public housing units will be built on the north end of the neighborhood.
As of May 1998, EPDC has applied for low income housing tax credits through the Illinois Housing Development Authority (IDA) for a McCormack Barron development project including 235 rental units and 50 single-family units and valued at $20 million.
EPDC should take a leadership role in coordinating and promoting development around the Emerson Park station while maintaining its interest in the neighborhood as a primarily residential area. Development around the Emerson Park MetroLink station must also further both the interests of EPDC and BSDA in order to maximize support and success. For the Emerson Park Station, EPDC has an opportunity to coordinate station area efforts creating a clear contact point for outside investors.
Changes in policy, the use of new programs, as well as incentives will all be necessary to promote development near the Emerson Park station. In order to prepare the development climate in light of the soft real estate market in East St. Louis, the EPDC should advocate for transit oriented land use and design, TOD permissive zoning, land acquisition and assembly of critical parcels, use of incentives and marketing efforts, and public participation.
It is essential for EPDC to foster or continue to foster strong relationships with the City of East St. Louis, the St. Clair County Transit District, the Bi-State Development Agency, and East West Gateway Coordinating Council. These organizations will be invaluable to the promotion of station area improvements and development, as well as primary sources for potential funding.
Combining mutually supportive levels of residential and commercial land uses within a short distance of each other can create communities where daily activities are connected. A well-integrated mix of commercial and residential uses in the station area will provide commercial space for goods and services needed by both residents and transit riders while maintaining the residential nature of the neighborhood. The presence of activity throughout the day lessens the opportunity for crime, increasing safety as well as the perception of safety. To qualify as transit supportive mixed use development, Mixed Use Centers combine varied, complementary uses within convenient walking distance of each other connected by safe and direct pathways.
While conclusions about the retail needs of commuters expected to patronize the Emerson Park Station can be generalized from current uses and surveys at other stations, neighborhood retail opportunities will be clearer once the station opens. A survey of the ridership within the first month of opening will be necessary to increase the validity of the needs expressed by residents and experts. In addition, convincing investors of the area’s market potential will be easier with ridership, pedestrian, and car counts.
Urban design, or the architecture of urban space including buildings and the spaces in between, can impact transit ridership by encouraging pedestrian activity and interconnectedness of uses by influencing factors which affect pedestrian travel choices: uses, networks, destinations, distance, scale, and amenities. Orienting buildings along pathways with pedestrian appropriate streetscape, lighting, and curbs can create a welcoming atmosphere for the transit stop. Design which increases pedestrian activity and comfort can also increase safety and perceptions of safety. Sample design guidelines for community redevelopment areas can be found in Appendix A (page 42).
Area service providers, such as Police and Fire departments, can also be helpful in the construction of a neighborhood friendly environment. Involving service providers in the area projects will not only result in better design, but will also foster good rapport with the neighborhood.
Regulations and Zoning
Zoning and design regulations can assist TOD with limits on land use, incentives for mixing land uses, minimum densities, parking maximums and minimums, building heights, building orientation and setback requirements. Zoning for mixed use should be flexible for the developer while achieving the goals of TOD. As the primary tool for regulating land use, zoning for station areas or TOD districts should be tailored to the development of the districts and be implemented through a plan district or special overlay zone.
Station area design and zoning should promote transit oriented mixed use developments designed for multi-modal access to neighborhood amenities, residential and commercial development and transit alternatives. Commercial uses (transit supportive convenience goods and services) should be encouraged along pedestrian pathways near, and with clear visibility from, the transit stop. Commercial uses should be designed to be compatible with the scale of neighborhood residential development. Parking should be shared between uses if possible. Parking lots and auto-oriented uses should be minimized and should not disrupt pedestrian access to transit or commercial sites. Zoning should permit mixed uses and be implemented through a plan district or special overlay zone.
To capture the commuter market in addition to the residential market, the commercial development must be visible from the station. Commercial activities should take place in the path of the commuter to be visited by the commuter. Exhibit 8 (page 33) shows proposed zoning changes for parcels near the MetroLink Station. Parcels designated as Mixed-Use Transit and Commercial are land designated for the MetroLink park and ride. Though the station area is currently designated as the station itself (including parking, bus bays, and landscaping), opportunity for the future development is open due to the large, preassembled land (surface parking lots) with excellent visibility from the station platform.
Directly across the street from the station, parcels recommended as Mixed-Use Priority Commercial have excellent visibility from the station platform. This designation should allow for mixed uses with a commercial emphasis, but also allow for high density residential including the public housing development which currently exists within this area. Parcels designated as Commercial have direct visibility and access to both the MetroLink Station park and ride traffic and local neighborhood traffic via I-64 and I-55. These higher auto-traffic areas may be more difficult to promote residential uses due to the proximity to the interstates.
Areas designated as Mixed-Use Priority Residential are within one-quarter mile (ten minute walking distance) of areas designated as Commercial or Mixed-Use Priority Commercial. Due to proximity to future commercial amenities, these parcels are appropriate for high density residential areas catering to commercial and transit uses. This designation allows for commercial spillover, creating a buffer between commercial and single family residential areas as well as minimizing spot zoning.
Development may be considered mixed use whether the uses are mixed vertically or horizontally. For Emerson Park, Mixed-Use zoning is recommended to be horizontal, keeping individual buildings within mixed use zone of a single use type. This not only keeps in mind the current residential nature of the neighborhood, but also minimizes the barrier of seeking mixed use financing in an already soft market. To further design the specific elements of the zoning ordinance, EPDC should encourage the City of East St. Louis to construct special station area community districts around East St. Louis stations
Exhibit 8 page 33
which address the needs of the specific station, neighborhood, and transit ridership and includes input form local land owners, developers, BSDA, SCCTD, and EPDC.
Despite the presence of a commercial pad at Station 2, the city of East St. Louis and EPDC should advocate for more retail space closer to the station. While the park and ride concept is good for commuters, it does not promote interaction of automobile users with the Emerson Park Neighborhood. This may make marketing to the commuter more difficult. The large parking lots are, however, large tracts of land with a single owner which may later be converted to mixed use development. The city should consider encouraging land swap with BSDA in order to put pedestrian friendly, commercially zoned area between parking and transit station encouraging more scattered parking. This will not only make for more aesthetically pleasing entrance to the neighborhood from the transit stop, but also encourage commuter expenditures in local retail establishments.
Due to the number of vacant parcels near the Emerson park MetroLink Station, large commercial projects will be feasible with the assistance of property owners. Many of the vacant parcels are owned by the City or the County and could be used as an incentive to jump-start projects through land assembly and write-downs. Projects in other parts of the city have been able to obtain publicly held land at minimal costs.
Exhibit 9 (page 35) shows three priority levels for land acquisition for the purpose of resale for commercial or mixed use development. Priority parcels are defined as first second or third depending on their proximity to the station or auto traffic corridor leading to the station.
Exhibit 9 page 35 Incentives
Exhibit 9 page 35
Incentives for commercial development must be carefully constructed programs to avoid the perception that commercial development incentives benefit individuals more than they benefit the general public. Financial incentive programs through public agencies can be used for both public and development benefit. Many of the following programs are focused on infrastructure improvements, but can also be powerful tools in attracting investment. Many of the funds available for transit oriented development are passed through local institutions from federal authorities. In order for EPDC to access these funds, it is necessary to coordinate efforts with the institutions which control the distribution of the funds. Contacts for the programs listed below are located in Appendix B (page 49).
Through the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, federal funds are distributed through regional transportation planning agencies to local projects. Ten percent of these funds can be used for transportation enhancements including bicycle and pedestrian facilities, and landscaping in transportation corridors. ISTEA/ Surface Transportation Program Funds have been used at other MetroLink Stations.
Created from ISTEA, the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) program is intended to assist local governments with projects meeting the goals of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. CMAQ funds can be used for programs which reduce automobile emissions such the creation of pedestrian or transit oriented plans. These funds must also be sought through regional agencies.
FTA Livable Communities Initiative
This federal program has been used at other MetroLink Stations for the enhancement of the station area. As the intermediary between the local station projects and the federal government, BSDA and SCCTD are instrumental in the process of obtaining funds. Project elements which are eligible for LCI funds include property acquisition, site preparation, utilities, walkways, open space, safety elements, site design improvements, transit marketing, and pass programs.
The Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Operations Corporation is responsible for the distribution of federal CDBG funds in East St. Louis. Though the majority of commercial aspects of the station are not eligible for federal funding, the CDBG Operations Corporation is able to provide low interest gap financing loans to expanding or new businesses which produce permanent jobs for East St. Louis residents. Through the Low-Interest Revolving Loan Program, commercial enterprises may request $10,000 in loan per permanent job created. Applications for loans must be accompanied by a 5 year business plan including pro forma. Loans may be used for fixed assets including some renovation.
The Enterprise Community program of East St. Louis operates through the CDBG Operations Corporation. This program has been instrumental in the infrastructure assets and needs assessment for the City of East St. Louis and is currently seeking funding to begin improving infrastructure. The EC program is also able to provide grant writing assistance to EPDC for special projects.
Emerson Park is part of two Tax Increment Financing districts in East St. Louis. Projects generating property taxes may be eligible for partial assistance with gap financing through the TIF program. These funds are distributed through the City of East St. Louis and can be used for acquisition, demolition, rehabilitation, infrastructure, soft costs (legal, engineering, marketing), and education and training. TIF funds may not be used to subsidize an entire project. Any project requesting TIF assistance must generate property taxes and is subject to a lien on the property for three years.
Documenting the advantage of locating new businesses near transit is an important process for EPDC, BSDA, SCCTD, and the City of East St. Louis. Equally as important is informing current and potential residents, businesses, customers, and transit riders of the improvements at the station. As a joint community outreach program through BSDA and SCCTD, the EastLink Newsletter has been mailed to St Clair County Corridor residents to inform them of the MetroLink progress, past events, and upcoming activities.
Though BSDA has published a Station Area Planning and Development profile which outlines the cultural assets, land use and zoning, and population statistics, the trade area used is the standard half-mile radius of the transit stop and does not take into account the variability of the trade area due to perceived neighborhood boundaries and the highway which cuts through the designated trade area. Market opportunities outlined in the current profile could be expanded to include identification of retail businesses in the area and convenience needs of residents as assessed through the ESLARP survey. The Station Area Profile should be a great marketing tool, and should include spelling out the transit advantage for developers, including special city incentive offerings as well as community contacts. Though the current profile is a good start and outlines information needed by the development community, new station area profiles should be created with input from EPDC and the City of East St. Louis.
As a fundamental part of successful station area development, BSDA, SCCTD, the City of East St. Louis, and EPDC should encourage maximum involvement of the community. It is imperative for the success of the entire process for these groups to work as a coalition to promote trust and realize cohesive goals.
Commercial development of the Emerson Park station area will, mostly likely, be undertaken by professionals in development. Residents should, however, be active participants in the process and proliferation of future development. Residents should not only understand the process of development, but also know how they can encourage city officials and other government bodies to promote the kinds of businesses in which residents are most interested.
Knowing your market and your customers is key to the success of retail. According to Wiewel and Mier (1981), new, attractive, well managed retail facilities can expect to do well in low income neighborhoods as many are underserved with old, poorly stocked, poorly managed stores. One way to minimize the nervousness of outside retailers from entering the East St. Louis market as well as encourage self sufficiency and job creation with the community is to promote resident owned businesses. Business training through the Small Business Development Center in East St. Louis and the UIUC Cooperative Extension can educate and prepare new entrepreneurs for opening day through business plan and financing assistance. These resources can also assist businesses already operating in East St. Louis with expansion proposals. Contacts for business training and assistance can be found in Appendix B (page 48).
Although conventional development often requires developers to furnish site improvements such as landscaping, sidewalks, and street lighting, Emerson Park is in a unique position to request additional qualifying conditions from developers. Since EPDC’s goals include not only development, but also general neighborhood welfare, they are more likely to be directly involved in assisting local business owners than other development corporations and may be in a position to consider more direct benefits from development.
EPDC should consider:
These strategies are dependent on the market for land and development at the station. Requiring too much from developers, or more than other nearby stations, will inhibit development at the station. Developers will go where cost is lowest and return on investment can be maximized. The addition of these requirements to development, though beneficial to EPDC, may stunt growth in the station area unless the market for development is sufficiently strong or other benefits outweigh these costs. It is recommended that EPDC coordinate efforts with nearby station areas and complete a thorough market study before engaging additional development requirements. The enforcement of these strategies will also require support and cooperation from the City of East St. Louis.
The new Emerson Park MetroLink Station is a major investment in the future of East St. Louis. By using techniques of transit oriented development, EPDC can capture additional investment into the community through the transit ridership. Commercial development at the Emerson Park Station needs to be encouraged through incentives (both financial and non-financial) due to the soft real estate market in East St. Louis. Incentives such as flexible zoning, cooperative government and community groups, and available land combined with financial incentives such as infrastructure improvements, land-write downs, and low interest loans can make commercial investment possible. Adding in the transit advantage and a market for transit oriented goods and services to these incentives can make Emerson Park an attractive retail location.
To make the process of development clear, concise, and welcoming to potential investors, it is necessary to make a distinct effort to promote station area development, advocate for city and resident needs, and coordinate the diverse organizations around a common goal. BSDA and SCCTD have been slow in their approach to coordinating economic development efforts around the Emerson Park MetroLink Station. Studies about and plans for land use around the station have been conducted with minimal resident input in mind. New development in East St. Louis is hindered by slow approval processes and unclear incentive packages available. To serve the interests of residents, it is essential that EPDC take an active role in station area development. Adding the responsibility of station area development to the expanding checklist of goals for EPDC increases the burden of the organization, but is also the most effective way to maintain a point of contact for resident involvement in the development process. It is recommended that the EPDC vocally advocate for the formation of an East St. Louis station area development coalition including neighborhood organizations in Emerson Park, Olivette Park, Hall Park, and Washington Park.
A coalition of neighborhoods directly adjacent to MetroLink stations would be able to coordinate station area development efforts with local and regional agencies such as BSDA, SCCTD, and the City of East St. Louis to not only give residents a stronger voice in station development, but also create a clear point of contact for developers to obtain information about investing in station areas, including what incentives are available. Due to the specific nature of the clearinghouse function, the energy necessary to vocalize local needs through resident mobilization, and the political expertise needed to conduct joint development efforts, it would be advantageous to have devoted staff time to manage station area projects through an already functioning city-wide organization such as ESLCAN or the CDBG Operations Corporation.
The EPDC must advocate for station area development which is both neighborhood and transit oriented to capitalize on the transit investment. The EPDC’s role in prompting commercial development should be one of coordination through regional institutions, the city, and neighborhood residents. EPDC can be an advocate for the interests of residents while guarding against interests of regional organizations whose interest differ from those of EPDC.
The efforts of EPDC thus far have demonstrated that the mobilization of residents can be an effective avenue for neighborhood change. With the progression of the MetroLink Extension construction, EPDC’s role as and educator and advocate becomes increasing important in assuring station area development is compatible with Emerson Park neighborhood goals and benefits neighborhood residents. Using the information and resources of this station area report, the EPDC can provide a vehicle to educate residents about elements which encourage development, as well as initiatives which enhance the neighborhood while maximizing the development opportunities available as a result of the MetroLink Station.
Copied with permission from Chicago Transit Authority. Guidelines for Transit Supportive Development. Chicago, IL. 1996
Community Redevelopment Areas p.31-35
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The Transit Oriented Development Clearinghouse
Regional Transportation Authority
Department of Planning
181 West Madison, Suite 1900
Chicago, Illinois 60602
This is depository of information available to anyone interested in transit oriented development including municipal officials, planners, developers, and community leaders. Though its focus is primarily northeastern Illinois, the resources available may be applicable to other areas.
Small Business Incubator
Extension Educator, Small Business Management
Cooperative Extension Service, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Southern Illinois Small Business Incubator
150 East Pleasant Hill Rd
Carbondale, IL 62901
Norma Turok has volunteered to give seminars on business plan development for Emerson Park residents who would like to start their own businesses. Though she has taught classes through the Small Business Administration office in East St. Louis, she is willing to hold classes in Emerson Park as part of the retail development plan implementation. Class size would be approximately ten interested students in order to ensure additional attention for each potential business owner.
Small Business Development Center
650 Missouri Avenue, Room G32
East St. Louis, IL 62201
The Illinois Small Business Development Center (SBDC) at East St. Louis provides management, technical, financing and training assistance to small businesses as an extension of the Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs (DCCA) and the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). In addition to general small business resources, the SBDC has manuals for specific business types (such as convenience store, child care, etc.) which are available for use in the center or for sale. In the center, entrepreneurs can have access to computers including the world wide web. The SBDC also provides assistance to obtain loans from commercial banks. Though not directly affiliated, SBDC also has access to a service, called the "Angel Network" which finds investors for small business entrepreneurs.
MetroLink Station Area Development
William Grogan, Managing Director
St. Clair County Transit District
1004 S. Lincoln Ave. Suite 10
O’Fallon, IL 62269
FTA Livable Communities
Sarah Smith, Director Arts In Transit
Bi-State Development Corporation
707 N. First St.
St. Louis, MO 63102
Also: FTA website http://www.fta.dot.gov
Dale E. Cook, Jr., Community Development Coordinator
CDBG Operations Corporation
East St. Louis Municipal Building
301 River Park Dr. 3rd Floor
East St. Louis, IL 62201
City of East St. Louis Business and Economic Development Department
East St. Louis Municipal Building
301 River Park Dr. 3rd Floor
East St. Louis, IL 62201
Percy Harris, Enterprise Community Coordinator
CDBG Operations Corporation
East St. Louis Municipal Building
301 River Park Dr. 3rd Floor
East St. Louis, IL 62201
Alschuler, Karen and Sarah B. Smith. Transit and Development St. Louis MetroLink. Urban Land. April 1997. P. 38-41, 77-78.
Bi-State Development Agency and Arts In Transit, St. Louis, Missouri. MetroLink Communities: Station Area Profiles and Development Opportunities, June 1997.
Bi-State Development Agency, MetroLink St. Clair County Extension Station Area Planning and Development, Station 2, Emerson Park. St. Louis, MO. February 1997.
Bi-State Development Agency and Arts In Transit, St. Louis, Missouri. Taking a Look at the Future of Delmar Boulevard and the Delmar MetroLink Station Area. Community Outreach Literature
Calthorpe, Peter. The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community, and the American Dream. Princeton Architectural Press. 1993
Center for Livable Communities. Building Livable Communities: A Policymaker’s Guide to Transit Oriented Development. Local Government Commission. August 1996.
Chicago Transit Authority. Guidelines for Transit Supportive Development. Chicago, IL. 1996
Development Strategies, Inc., MetroLink: a Retrospective., Development Strategies Review, v.11 no.1, p. 4-5,10
Dunphy, Robert. New Developments in Light Rail. Urban Land. July 1996. p.37-41,87-88
ECO Northwest, Westside Light Rail Corridor Economic Analysis, 1994
Emerson Park Development Corporation, Testimony of the Emerson Park Development Corporation, 1995
Federal Transit Administration web site, http://www.fta.dot.gov
Hillsboro, City of. Station Community Planning Areas (SCPA). Hillsboro, OR. June, 1996.
Howland, Libby and Robert T.Dunphy, Transit Sparks Redevelopment in St. Louis and Chicago. Urban Land, July 1996, p.43-46,88-89.
Huang, Herman. The Land Use Impacts of Urban Rail Transit Systems. Journal of Planning Literature., vol.11, no.1, August 1996.
Huang, William S., BART @ 20 Series: Transit and Regional Economic Growth: A Review of the Literature. UCTC Working Paper No. 310, August 1995.
Markus, Henry S., 1992-1997 Westside Light Rail Station Area Design, Planning and Development Program Accomplishments, Lessons Learned & Close Out Report (DRAFT). Portland, OR. November 1997.
Morris, Marya. Creating Transit-Supportive Land-Use Regulations. American Planning Association Planning Advisory Service Report Number 468. Chicago, IL. December 1996.
RCGA, Linking MetroLink with Economic Growth, St. Louis Commerce. June 1997
RTA Chicago, Illinois. The Market for Transit-Oriented Development: Proceedings of a Workshop. November 13, 1995.
RTA Chicago, Illinois. A Transit Review Checklist for Public Agencies, Municipalities, and Developers. April 1996.
Tri-Met., Planning and Design for Transit Handbook: Guidelines for Implementing Transit Supportive Development. Portland, OR. January 1996
Urban Land Institute. An Advisory Services Panel Report: MetroLink St. Louis Region: Strategies for Optimizing Community and Economic Development Benefits of MetroLink at the Wellston, Delmar, and East Riverfront Station Areas.. September 1995.
Urban Land Institute. Downtown Retail Development: Conditions for Success and Project Profiles. Washington DC, 1983
US Department of Transportation Federal Transit Administration (FTA), Bi-State Development Agency, and St. Clair County Transit District. St. Clair County MetroLink Extension Project Final Environmental Impact Statement. August 1996
US Department of Transportation Federal Transit Administration (FTA) and East-West Gateway Coordinating Council, St. Clair County Corridor Major Investment Study Draft Environmental Impact Statement. March 1995.
Wiewel, Wim and Robert Mier., Analyzing Neighborhood Retail Opportunites: A Guide for Carrying Out a Preliminary Market Study. American Planning Association Planning Advisory Service Report No. 358, Chicago, IL., 1981
Dale Cook, Community Development Coordinator, CDBG Operations Corporation
Vicky Forby, Executive Director, Emerson Park Development Corporation
Percy Harris, Enterprise Community Coordinator, CDBG Operations Corporation
Curtis Galloway, City Manager, City of East St. Louis
Bill Grogan, Managing Director, St. Clair County Transit District
Howard Johnson, East West Gateway Coordinating Council
Kelvin Jones, Small Business Development Center of East St. Louis
Gerrit Knaap, Professor, UIUC Department of Urban and Regional Planning
Deanna Koenigs, ESLARP Imaging Laboratory
Carole Malone, City Planner, Business and Economic Development Department, City of East St. Louis
Patricia Nolan, Neighborhood Technical Assistance Center, ESLARP
Ken Reardon, Professor, UIUC Department of Urban and Regional Planning
Taulby Roach, John Roach Development, St. Louis, MO
Bob Selby, Professor, UIUC School of Architecture
Damon Smith, Neighborhood Technical Assistance Center, ESLARP
Sarah Smith, Director, Arts In Transit. Bi-State Development Agency
Robert Storman, Urban Development Manager, Business and Economic Development Department
Norma Turok, Extension Educator, UIUC Cooperative Extension Service
Document author(s) : Cassandra Ecker
Last modified: 6 July 1998, Deanna Koenigs